History (HIST)

HIST 101 —  Themes Course count: 1 

An introduction to history as a mode of intellectual inquiry, this is an intensive reading, writing, and discussion course. Seeks to develop a critical awareness of history through an in-depth study of selected topics and themes. Emphasis is on student participation and the development of critical thinking. Readings involve some textual analysis and there are frequent short papers. Enrollment preference is given to first-year students. Only one Themes course may be applied toward the minimum of 10 courses needed for the major. One unit.

Enrollment limited to 1st year students only

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 105 —  Asia in Western Fiction and Film Course count: 1 

Examines and compares descriptions of Asia and portrayals of Asian societies found in Western novels, short stories and films produced since the mid-19th century, and relates them to colonial and post-colonial historical encounters between Asia and the West. Fulfills non-Western requirement for the major. One unit.

4th year HIST majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

HIST 109 —  Ancient Near East and Greece Course count: 1 

Beginning with an examination of prehistoric humans in Africa and Europe, we will study the ancient civilizations of Sumeria, Assyria, Israel, and the Persians, then turn to Greek history. Political systems, social and economic organization, and cultural achievements will be discussed. Emphasis will be given to the analysis of evidence by which we know the past, and the archaeological discoveries of the ancient world during the past two centuries.

4th year HIST majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Every Third Year, Spring

HIST 110 —  Rome: Republic and Empire Course count: 1 

Provides an introduction to major themes in Roman history, from its foundation and and relations with other Mediterranean powers, the development of the Republic, the evolution of Empire, to changes brought by Christianity. Political, legal, social and cultural themes are pursued, with emphasis on the primary historical and physical sources of knowledge. Fullfills one of pre-industrial/pre-modern requirements.

4th-year History majors are not eligible to enroll in this course. Students who have taken CLAS 151 or 152 cannot enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Every Third Year, Fall

HIST 111 —  The Rise of the Christian West to A.D. 1000 Course count: 1 

Western history from the later Roman period to the formation of Europe in the 11th century. Covers political, religious, economic, social, artistic and legal developments in the fusion of Roman and Christian civilization, the disintegration of the Western Roman empire in the face of barbarian invasions, relations with the Byzantine Eastern Empire, the impact of Islam, rural and urban life, the Carolingian revival, and the impact of new peoples on the European scene. Fulfills one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major.

4th year HIST majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Fall

HIST 112 —  Emerging Europe 1000-1500 Course count: 1 

The emergence of Europe in the 11th century to the era of the Renaissance. Covers political, religious, economic, social, artistic and legal developments in the formation of European states and territorial monarchy, European frontier expansion, urban growth, the evolution of Romanesque and Gothic styles, and the conflict of church and state. Fulfills one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major.

4th year HIST majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Spring

HIST 113 —  Renaissance to Napoleon Course count: 1 

Social, cultural, religious, economic, and political developments in Europe from the Renaissance to the fall of Napoleon. Special emphasis on the Protestant and Catholic Reformations, the evolution of monarchical power, the rise of European overseas empires, the scientific revolution, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the rise and fall of Napoleon Bonaparte. Fulfills one of pre-modern/pre-industrial requirements for the major.

4th year HIST majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 114 —  Napoleon to the European Union Course count: 1 

European history from the end of the French Revolution to the aftermath of the collapse of communism in Europe: industrialization, the rise of liberalism and nationalism, the revolutions of 1848, the creation of national states in Italy and Germany, evolution of a consumer culture, European imperialism in Asia and Africa, art and culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, World War I, the rise of Bolshevism, fascism and Nazism, world War II, the history of the cold War, Western European integration, the collapse of communism in eastern Europe, the breakup of the Soviet Union, and the formation and growth of the European Union.

4th year History majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 122 —  Food, Power, & Environment Course count: 1 

The story of the American food system Is fundamentally an environmental one. Over the past several centuries food production has evolved from a process that was bound by seasonal, regional, and other ecological limitations, to a highly industrialized and astoundingly productive system that defies these earlier limitations. For most Americans, food exists in the abstract. We find it at restaurants and in grocery stores with little sense of how it came from the earth and to our tables. Indeed, we expect to eat whatever we might desire regardless of what time of the year, which is an astoundingly new reality in the grand scope of human history!

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 124 —  Religion and Society in American History Course count: 1 

This survey of religious belief and practice in American history introduces students to the development of religious institutions, communities, and theological traditions throughout its history. It also asks them to examine the ways religious belief and practice have shaped and been shaped by the major social, economic, and political forces of American history. Through lecture, debate, and discussion, students examine the broad range of religious expressions, casting an analytical eye toward the religious conflicts of the post-9/11 world.

Fourth year History majors are not permitted to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years, Spring

HIST 126 —  Colonial Latin America Course count: 1 

Provides an introduction to Latin American history from pre-Columbian to the late 18th century, emphasizing native cultures, the conquest of the New World, the creation of colonial societies in the Americas, race, gender and class relations, the functioning of the imperial system, the formation of peasant communities, and the wars of independence. Fulfills one non-Western and one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major.

4th year HIST majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Fall

HIST 127 —  Modern Latin America Course count: 1 

Surveys the history of 19th- and 20th-century Latin America, focusing on six countries. Topics include the formation of nation-states, the role of the military, the challenges of development and modernization, the Catholic church and liberation theology, social and political movements for reform or revolution, slavery, race relations, the social history of workers and peasants, and inter-American relations. Fulfills one non-Western requirement for the major.

4th year History majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Spring

HIST 137 —  American Slavery, American Freedom Course count: 1 

Examines the intertwined origins and development of American slavery and American freedom, racial ideology and democracy, and the combustible interaction that created the central contradiction of antebellum America: a republican nation professing equality that was also an enormous slave holding society. Also examines the ways in which historians work and make arguments, and students will be asked to critically examine both primary and secondary documents.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 140 —  Nature and Society in American History Course count: 1 

This course combines a survey of traditional environmental history, exploring the changing relationships between people and the natural environment in the United States, from early agrarianism to the emergence of industry and market economics, urbanization, suburbanization, and modern debates over sustainability as both an individual and communal ethic. In addition to this broad survey of policy, students will develop particular themes: competing visions of nature and natural resources as raw materials for human development; how technological development shaped these attitudes explore the varied ways that nature and its resources became critical means of defining and asserting competing political, economic, cultural, and even religious identities over others; the historical origins of environmentalism and its limitations in addressing the needs and voices of marginalized communities.

4th year History majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years, Spring

HIST 145 —  History of Medicine Course count: 1 

This course will examine the history of health and disease through a careful study of patient expectations of experiences of therapeutics from Colonial America to present-day U.S.. practice. We will explore how religion, war, industrialization, race, gender, and class shape patient expectations and medical practice over time. Concentration on specific events such as the invention of anesthesia; the Civil War; the advent of the germ theory; the emergency of bioethics; and the rise of breast cancer awareness as a brand affected the medical treatment patients received and demanded. One unit.

4th year History majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 155 —  World War II in East Asia Course count: 1 

This course provides a comprehensive examination of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and Asia-Pacific War (1941-1945). Students will also gain a working familiarity with the history of early and late twentieth-century China and Japan as they study the political and cultural contexts of prewar and postwar East Asia and East Asia-U.S. relations through engagement with a wide variety of primary sources. By exploring a number of issues such as nationalism, popular memory, morality, identity, race, gender, and refugees, students will be exposed to a number of recent and classic debates in the historiography on modern China and Japan.

4th year HIST majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 195 —  Tutorial Course count: 1 

GPA units: 1

HIST 197 —  Early Africa to 1800 Course count: 1 

Early African farmers and hunters, men and women, kings and queens, commoners and slaves long stood at the center - not the margins -- of global change. From the rise of agriculture to the culmination of the slave trades, Africans actively borrowed ideas, technologies, and foods, guns, and other goods from Asian and European(strangers). But they profoundly influenced these strangers as well, contributing their innovative ideas,technologies, cultural expressions, and wealth. Through close study of oral traditions, epics, archaeological data,food, autobiography, and film, we will investigate early Africans' global connections. Environment plays an important role in our study; we explore the ways that Africans creatively adapted to, manipulated, and altered the continent's diverse environments, and how choices shaped the kinds of societies in which they lived. By immersing ourselves in Africa's early history, we will also begin to understand and to critique how and why contemporary western media has come to portray Africans as (marginal) to global change. This course begins its study of global connections when the climatic changes that contributed to the rise of agriculture (after 20000 BCE), and it concludes in the late-eighteenth century, following the period of Africa's most intensive exports of slaves.

4th year History majors are not eligible to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Spring

HIST 198 —  Modern Africa Since 1800 Course count: 1 

A survey of Africa's complex colonial past, examining dominant ideas about colonial Africa and Africans' experiences during colonialism, including important historical debates on Africa's colonial past and the legacy of colonialism; pre-colonial Africa's place in the global world; resistance and response to the imposition and entrenchment of colonialism; and the nature of colonial rule as revealed in economic (under) development, ethnicity and conflict, and the environment.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Fall

HIST 200 —  The Historian's Craft Course count: 1 

An introduction to historical methods and to historiography--that is, how history is written and interpreted, and how the discipline or a topic within it has evolved. Students examine how historians formulate questions or lines of inquiry, how to locate and read primary sources, how to use secondary sources, how to develop research topics that are incisive and focused, and how to organize and present one's research in oral and written form. Required of all history majors. One unit.

Enrollment is limited to 2nd year HIST Majors only.

GPA units: 1

HIST 201 —  Colonial America Course count: 1 

The exploration, settlement, and development of North America from the late-16th to the mid-18th century. Special emphasis: comparative analysis of the backgrounds, goals, and accomplishments of the original colonists; social structure, economic development, and religious life; immigration and white servitude; slavery; Indian-white relations; and development of the British imperial system. Fulfills one pre-modern/ pre-industrial requirement for the major.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years, Fall

HIST 202 —  Amer in the Age of Revolutions Course count: 1 

The American Revolution and independence in the context of Anglo-American ideas and institutions. Special emphasis: imperial reorganization after the Seven Years' War; colonial resistance and loyalty; revolutionary ideology; social and political consequences of the Revolution; Confederation and Constitution; political parties under Washington, Adams, and Jefferson; and impact of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars on the U.S. Fulfills one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major. One unit.

Enrollment limited to 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students only

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 203 —  Age Of Jackson Course count: 1 

American life and politics between the time of the Founding Fathers and the Civil War. Emphasizes Jackson's role as a national hero and political leader; constitutional issues; political and economic developments; continental expansion; antebellum literature, social life, and reform; and the breakup of the Jacksonian consensus as a prelude to the Civil War.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Fall

HIST 204 —  Civil War and its Aftermath Course count: 1 

American life and politics from the Civil War to the end of Reconstruction. Emphasizes Lincoln's leadership and vision, the proximate causes and military progress of the civil War, "Reconstruction" of the former Confederate states, and the evolution of the 14th and 15th Amendments as protectors of civil rights. One unit.

Enrollment limited to 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students only

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 205 —  United States in the 20th Century 1 Course count: 1 

Examines the major political, economic, social and cultural forces that contributed to the modernizing of America. Special emphasis on: industrialization and Empire; the impact of racial, gender, class and ethnic struggles for justice with a democratic republic; "Americanism"; the expanding role of the government in the lives of its citizens; labor and capitalism; popular and consumer culture; war and homefront.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Fall

HIST 206 —  US in 20C II 1945-Present Course count: 1 

Examines the major political, economic, social and cultural forces of the post-WWII era. Special topics include: Reorganizing the post-war world; McCarthyism; consumer and youth culture; the Civil Rights Movement; the New Left and the Vietnam War; the women's movements; Watergate and the resurgent Right; and post-Cold War America.

Enrollment limited to 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students only

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Spring

HIST 208 —  The US & the World since 1890 Course count: 1 

A study of the foreign policies and relations of the U.S. with respect to the nations of the Americas, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa, with an emphasis on the American presidents and their secretaries of state during the 20th century. One unit.

Enrollment limited to 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students only

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 210 —  Early American Lives Course count: 1 

This course will explore the history of Early America through biography. We will look at the lives of a range of individuals from Columbus to Betsy Ross, and from Thomas Jefferson to Sacagawea, as we cover themes such as exploration, colonization, Native American responses, the rise of race slavery, the American Revolution, the formation of American democratic thought, and Euro-American expansion. The course will focus on social developments, conflicting political and economic visions, and tensions between ideals and realities. We will begin in the pre-Columbian era and end in the early national period with the expedition of Lewis and Clark into the American West.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Every Third Year, Fall

HIST 212 —  US Capitalism and Politics Course count: 1 

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 223 —  Radicalism in America Course count: 1 

Americans recognize that we live in a profoundly different nation than that which was created out of the American Revolution. Citizenship, itself, has changed. Civil society has been expanded such that we feel quite confident in our belief that the United States today is a fairer and more just nation in relation to the status of women, African Americans, and working people. We might account for these changes in various ways--the genius of the Founding Fathers, the general prosperity of the nation, even the feeling that "things" just always get better over time. This course is based on the idea that these changes have been the result of human effort, and that the efforts of American radicals have been essential to the rise of the American democracy. It examines the thought and action of radicals of various stripe and means, from Tom Paine to Martin King, from the brutal war on American slavery attempted by Nat Turner and John Brown, to the more genteel fight against patriarchy waged by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, and look closely at the various efforts of Wobblies, Syndicalists, and Reds to advance the cause of industrial democracy.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 225 —  Th Civil Rights Movement Course count: 1 

Provides an in-depth study of the civil rights movement from its origins in Jim Crow America to its stirrings in the 1950s, through to the heights of its successes in the mid-1960s and its dissolution thereafter. Assesses its legacy and consequence in the 1970s and afterward. Special attention is paid to the way in which the movement worked within and challenged consensus notions about progress and "the Negro's place" in America and also to the movement as an ideological problem for Americans and activists like Martin Luther King, Malcolm X and others. Also examines the ways in which historians work and make arguments, and students are asked to critically examine both primary and secondary documents. One unit.

Enrollment limited to 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students only

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 226 —  Irish American Experience Course count: 1 

Examines the historical experience of the Irish, one of the largest ethnic groups in America. The Irish in America have left an indelible mark on the nation's economy, politics, and culture, while at the same time they have been shaped by their adoptive country. Among the topics addressed: colonial era immigration, the Famine, changes in ethnic identity, class conflict and the labor movement, the Catholic Church, machine politics and political affiliations, culture and the arts, nationalism and the fight for Irish freedom, upward mobility and the quest for respectability, relations with other ethnic and racial groups.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 227 —  Muslim Africa Course count: 1 

Much of the discussion of the recent Arab Spring makes little of the fact that these critical events began in North Africa. How should we understand North Africa and Africa, in general, as part of a larger Muslim world? This lecture/discussion course examines the historical, religious, and cultural aspects of the expansion of Muslim Africa. Trade networks extending from north of the Sahara were an undeniable part of the diffusion of Muslim religious practices. However, this course also examines other factors that facilitated and hindered the spread of Islam in Africa including indigenous religion, gender ideologies, the expansion of Christianity, local politics, European colonialism, and the more recent development of Islamist political movements. In order to examine Muslim Africa from all of these perspectives, this course uses primary sources, scholarly articles, novels, and films covering all regions of the continent. This course is useful for students looking for an overview of African history.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

HIST 230 —  Environmental History Course count: 1 

Beginning with the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, China, and the Mediterranean, this course integrates human experience with the natural order. Examines changing ratios of humans to the land and of humans to other species and the impact of the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the hemispheres after 1492. Considers how perceptions of nature have differed over time. Case studies of environmental crises in the contemporary world are based on their 19th- and 20th-century roots.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Fall

HIST 231 —  Medieval England To 1216 Course count: 1 

Examines the political, social, legal and economic developments in England and the Celtic fringe from the prehistoric period, through the Roman and Anglo-Saxon invasions, into the Norman and Angevin eras, ending in 1216 with Magna Carta and the death of King John. Topics include the Romanization of Britain, the growth of Christianity, the roles of medieval women and minority groups, crime and violence. Fulfills one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years, Fall

HIST 232 —  Medieval Lives Course count: 1 

Course explores personal expressions of the intersection of faith and action. These works deal with the most basic questions of morality and ethics, and expand our understanding of the variety of rhetorical methods by which to communicate such issues. The readings include works of writers from many walks of life: saints such as Augustine and Joan; sinners like Abelard and Heloise, a king of Reconquest Spain; and a variety of folk in between: a Frankish noblewoman worried about her son, an Arab gentleman observing the crusaders conquest of his country, a monk recalling his childhood, a young woman escaping an arranged marriage for a life of contemplation and prayer.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Every Third Year, Fall

HIST 233 —  War & Chivalry in Medieval France Course count: 1 

Examines the political, social, and cultural developments in France from Roman Gaul to the reign of Louis XI. Emphasizes the institutional development of the state, the vital role of Christianity in the religious, political and intellectual life of France, the evolution of social life and social classes, and the rich artistic and architectural heritage of this era in French history. Fulfills one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Every Third Year, Spring

HIST 234 —  Medieval Spain Course count: 1 

The historical evolution of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula from their Roman experience to the creation of Spain as a political entity at the end of the 15th century. Emphasis is placed on political, social, economic, religious and artistic development, and the influence of the Visigothic and Muslim invasions and the Reconquest on the shaping of Luso-Hispania. Fulfills one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major. One unit.

Enrollment limited to 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students only

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

HIST 236 —  Renaissance Europe Course count: 1 

Surveys the significant intellectual, cultural, social, and political developments across Europe, beginning with the social and economic structures of family life during the early Italian Renaissance, continuing with the political and artistic expressions of the Italian city-states, and tracing the spread of Renaissance influences to northern Europe through the early 16th century. Fulfills one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Every Third Year, Fall

HIST 241 —  French Rebels & Revolutionaries Course count: 1 

From the Revolution of 1789, which gave birth to the nation, to human rights and to citizenship, to the creation of the European Union in the 1990s, France has been at the center of European culture. Paris was rebuilt in the late 19th century as "the capital of Europe," a center of artistic modernism as well as an expanding global empire. During three wars with Germany between 1870 and 1945, the French suffered the devastating effects of total war on their own soil. France played a crucial role in the creation of the European Union but was forced to adapt to becoming a diminishing power in the world since World War II. One unit.

Enrollment limited to 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students only

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 242 —  British Soc & Empire 1763-1901 Course count: 1 

By the end of the Seven Years War (1756-1763), Britain had emerged as a genuine world power, with holdings larger and richer than any other in the Western world. During the next 150 years, Britain would eclipse its European rivals in industry, trade, and sea power. At the height of its power in the late 19th century, Britain controlled one quarter of the worlds population and one-fifth of its land surface. This course surveys the history of Britain and its empire from the late 18th century to the turn of the 20th century. This course rethinks certain familiar topics in British history by considering the intersections between home and empire and by highlighting how imperial considerations influenced Britains social formation. Topics include the slave trade and slavery, rise of capitalism, industrialization and consumer culture, political reform movements (e.g., anti-slavery, Chartism, and Irish Hone Rule), imperialism, religion, and British identity.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 243 —  Britain & Empire since 1901 Course count: 1 

By the turn of the century, at the height of its power, Britain controlled one quarter of the world's population and one-fifth of its land surface. Over the next 60 years, Britain would lose its status as a world and imperial power. This course focuses on the ways in which imperialism was constitutive of much of the domestic history of Britain from 1901 to 2001, even after Britain lost most of its colonies. Students examine Britain's declining role as a world and imperial power and interrogate the meaning of Britain's national and imperial identities. Discusses the two World Wars with analysis of their economic, social, cultural, and ideological repercussions within Britain and its empire.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 245 —  Imperial Russia/East & West Course count: 1 

At its height, the empire of tsarist Russia stretched across one-sixth of the globe, running from Germany to the Pacific Ocean and bordering regions as disparate as Sweden, China, and Iran. Ever preoccupied with their country's amorphous position between Europe and Asia, Russians have struggled for centuries to define how their vast homeland should modernize and what models of development it should follow. This course examines debates about Russian identity and the relationship of Imperial Russia to "East" and "West" that raged from the time of Peter the Great in 1682 to the outbreak of World War One in 1914. Important issues over the course of the semester include serfdom and emancipation; terrorism and the ethics of resistance against authoritarian power; conflicts over the relative merits of capitalism, liberalism, and socialism; strategies for managing a multi-ethnic empire; and theories of revolutionary vs. evolutionary change. Readings draw on works of Russian literature as well as a variety of other political and cultural sources.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Spring

HIST 253 —  Soviet Experiment Course count: 1 

This course traces the cataclysmic history of the USSR from its unpredictable beginnings amid the chaos of the First World War to its consolidation as a giant, unified Communist power. It explores the project of socialist revolution and the violent efforts of leaders such as Vladimir Lenin and Josef Stalin to transform an agrarian Russian Imperial Empire into an industrialized Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, abolish private property, and create an egalitarian, atheist, non-capitalist state. We look at the hopes and fears the Revolution inspired, the mechanisms of power in Soviet dictatorship, the practice of repression, and the struggles of everyday life. We pay particular attention to the Soviet experience of the monumental Second World War against Nazi Germany and to the war's aftermath, including the seemingly insurmountable challenges of post-1945 political and economic reform. Most of the semester focuses on the early Soviet period, ending with Stalin's death in 1953.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 254 —  The Soviet Union After Stalin Course count: 1 

This course examines the Soviet dictatorship from the death of Josef Stalin in 1953 to the sudden, surprise dissolution of the USSR in 1991. While it delves into some of the "high politics" of the era  a narrative shaped by major figures such as Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, and Mikhail Gorbachev  it also explores social and cultural tensions. What led to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991? What did Soviet citizens think about the world in which they lived and the relationship of their world to that of the West? How did the USSR experience the 1960s? Topics include destalinization, the Space Race, Soviet and U.S. competition in the Third World, resistance movements in Eastern Europe, the roles of science, surveillance, and secrecy in Soviet culture, the rise of the black market, problems of bureaucratic corruption and socialist legality, the Chernobyl nuclear meltdown, and the peaceful revolutions of 1989. Above all, this class considers why Soviet leaders failed in various post-1953 attempts to reform their countrys political and economic system. What can the fate of the Soviet Union teach us about ideology and dictatorship, and what kind of legacy has the Soviet era has left on Russia today?

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 255 —  Eur:Mass Polit/Tot War 1890-1945 Course count: 1 

From the high point of European global power and cultural influence, Europe moved into an era of world war, popular millenarian ideologies, dictatorships, and unprecedented mass murder. This course examines the origins, evolution, and impact of the modern European ideological dictatorships, from the cultural ferment and socioeconomic change that characterized the pre-1914 "belle époque" through the two world wars. Topics include: modern art; liberalism and its discontents; the origins and nature of World War I; the Russian revolutions; the Versailles peace settlement; the struggling interwar democracies; the economic crises; communism and fascism; the Italian, German, and Soviet dictatorships; the Spanish Civil War; and the origins of World War II.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Every Third Year

HIST 256 —  Europe & Superpowers:1939-1991 Course count: 1 

Postwar Europe was shaped in part by four major influences: the clash between Western liberalism and Soviet communism; the withdrawal from overseas empires; the effort to come to terms with the legacy of world war; and the creation of integrative European institutions. Concentrating on Europe, this course examines reciprocal influences between the Europeans and the two peripheral superpowers (USA and USSR) of the Atlantic community. Topics include: World War II, the Holocaust, science and government, the Cold War, the division of Europe, the revival and reinforcement of western European democracy, de-Nazification, Christian democracy, the economic miracle, European integration, the strains of decolonization, the rise of Khrushchev, the Berlin crises, De Gaulle and his vision, protest and social change in the sixties, the Prague Spring, Ostpolitik and détente, the oil shocks, the Cold War refreeze, the Eastern European dissidents, the environmental movement, Gorbachev's reforms, and the collapse of communism. One unit.

Enrollment limited to 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students only

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 261 —  Germany in Age of Nationalism Course count: 1 

Late to unify, late to industrialize, and late to acquire democratic institutions, Germany had to cope with all three processes at once, with tragic consequences for human rights and international order. This course analyzes the development of German nation-building from the time of Metternich, through the age of Bismarck and the Kaisers, to the Weimar Republic and the rise of Hitler. We explore the trends and circumstances in German and European history that came together to produce Nazism. But we also explore the presence of diversity, the alternative pathways, and the democratic potential in pre-Nazi German history. Topics include religious tension and prejudice (Catholics, Protestants, and Jews), Prusso-Austrian duality, the German confederation, the revolution of 1848, German national liberalism, Bismarck's unification and its legacy, imperial Germany under the Kaisers, German socialism, World War I, the revolution of 1918, the Weimar Republic, and the Nazis.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 262 —  Germany:Dictatorship/Democracy Course count: 1 

In Western Germany after World War II, a people that once had followed Hitler now produced perhaps the most stable democracy in Europe. At the same time, eastern Germans lived under a communist dictatorship that lasted more than three times as long as Hitler's. What is the place of the two postwar Germanies in the broader context of German and European history? To what degree were the two German states a product of their shared past, and to what degree were they products of the Cold War? What are the implications for reunified Germany? This course explores these questions by examining the history of democracy, dictatorship, political ideology, and social change in modern Germany. Topics include: Marx as a German; liberalism, socialism, communism, and political Catholicism in pre-Nazi Germany; popular attitudes toward Nazism; the legacy of Nazism and the Holocaust; the Allied occupation; de-Nazification, the Cold War, and the partition of Germany; Christian Democracy and Social Democracy; the Adenauer era, the Berlin crises, and the economic miracle; German-German relations and the Ostpolitik of Chancellor Willy Brandt; protest politics, Euromissiles, and the Green movement; the development and collapse of East Germany; and Germany since reunification.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 267 —  Modern Italy Course count: 1 

Italy has a long and distinguished history, but its political unification occurred only in 1861. This course analyzes the process of unification, the social and cultural life of 19th-century Italy, the deep divisions between the north and the south, Italy's role in both world wars, fascism and resistance to fascism, the postwar economic miracle, the role of the Mafia in Italian politics, and Italy's role in the formation of the European Union.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Fall

HIST 271 —  The Indians' New World: Native American History 1 Course count: 1 

A survey of Native American history from the pre-Columbian era through the 1840s. What was life like in North America 500 years ago? How did Native Americans react and relate to people from diverse cultures? Can we make broad generalizations about their lives, or do particularities like sex, age and geographical location indicate diverse experiences among Native Americans? This course explores such questions and themes such as trade, work, war, disease, gender, and religion in early North America. It examines theories of origin and life in North America before 1492 and ends with removals to Indian Territory in the 1830s and 1840s.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 272 —  Native American History II Course count: 1 

A survey of Native American history from the 19th-century Plains Wars to the present. Because of the complexity, diversity, historical depth, and geographic scope of North American Indian societies, this course seeks to provide a general framework, complemented by several case studies, through an approach that is both chronological and thematic. Among the topics addressed are the development and implementation of U.S. federal policies toward Indian peoples; Indian resistance and activism; definitions and practices of sovereignty; and cultural attitudes toward Indians in American society. Considers Native Americans not as victims, but as historical, political, economic, and cultural actors who resourcefully adjusted, resisted, and accommodated to the changing realities of life in North America and continue to do so in the 21st century.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 275 —  U.S. Mexican Border Course count: 1 

This course examines the history and culture of the region encompassing the modern American southwest and Mexican north from Spanish imperialism to modern immigration debates. Particular attention is paid to the interaction of Native, Latin, and Anglo American societies in creating unique ¿borderlands¿ society through the present day. This history offers important insight into processes of religious conflict, political revolution, economic dependency and globalization through Latin American and U.S. history.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 277 —  Afro-Latin America Course count: 1 

This course examines the African Diaspora in Latin America from the aftermath of slavery to the present. We will study the struggles of Afro-Latin America in establishing citizenship and a dignified existence, emphasizing topics such as: liberation movements; gender and racial politics; art; African religions in the Americas; national policies of whitening; and Afro-centric ideologies of the Caribbean. The course extensively uses music as both art and historical text.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 279 —  America's Colony: Puerto Rico since 1898 Course count: 1 

This course analyzes the history of Puerto Ricans from the moment their island became a US territory in 1898 to the present. It analyzes the political status of the island and the cultural, economic and social world of Puerto Ricans both in the island and the mainland United States. The course also highlights how Puerto Ricans have shaped and/or undermined US colonialism.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

HIST 280 —  Modern India Course count: 1 

This course takes us on an intellectual journey through Indias past and present. The course begins with important vignettes of Indian society, culture, and politics prior to the arrival of the British. We will examine how and why various facets of Indian society, namely: economic, legal, religious, and gender relations underwent radical transformation during the British rule. In the second segment of the course, we will study the causes and consequences of the Indian struggle for Independence that ended the British rule, but also led to a violent partition of India in 1947. The third segment of the course will look at some key individuals who sought to implement differing visions of India in the post-colonial era. By following the stories of the historical actors, events, and ideas we will seek to understand how colonial legacy, caste and gender relations, political corruption, and religious fundamentalism have shaped the contemporary Indian society.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

HIST 281 —  Imperial China Course count: 1 

Surveys Chinese political history from the formative era of the imperial system in the fourth century B.C. through the Communist revolution in 1949. Themes demonstrate how the tradition has shaped and is reconstructed to suit contemporary forces in China. Films, biographies, historical and philosophical writings, and western interpretations of events and personalities offer a variety of perspectives. Fulfills non-Western requirement and one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 282 —  Modern China Course count: 1 

Introduction to events, personalities, and concepts of particular significance for understanding Chinas development from a traditional empire considered so weak that it was called the sick man of Asia to a modern state that will continue to play a major role in a global world. Covers the period from the Opium Wars in the mid-nineteenth century through the post-Maoist reforms using a variety of sources, including documents, film, literature, reportage and memoirs. Topics covered include ongoing debates within China itself about the often competing demands of modernization, nationalism, traditionalism, feminism, social justice, economic imperatives, rule of law, and human rights.

Enrollment limited to 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students only

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 286 —  Modern Japan Course count: 1 

This course begins by surveying political, social, economic and cultural developments during the so-called ¿early modern¿ period of Japanese history (1600-1850), when the country was governed by the samurai military class. The focus then shifts to the period between the 1850 and 1930, when Japan undertook a thoroughgoing ¿modern¿ revolution that transformed it into a major military, industrial and colonial power that rivaled Europe and the United States. While modernization resolved some of the challenges facing the country in the 19th-century, it also posed a new set of challenges for Japanese -that culminated in the Pacific War.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 290 —  Sex and Society in Africa Course count: 1 

The common images we have of African women and men paint a confusing picture. Sometimes African women are portrayed as vulnerable, poor, and in desperate need of aid. In other examples, African women are seen as bold and innovative in the face of poverty and neglect. Moreover, both of these scenarios imply that African men are either absent or violent and, generally, at the center of problems ailing African societies. How do we integrate more complex and varied depictions of African women, men, and families into our study of African history? Are gender issues categorically different in Africa? Are Westerners forcing their ideas on African communities? Can Africans and the scholars who study African history help us think differently about the relationships between women, men, and society? Readings include theoretical pieces and case studies on five specific regions/countries of the continent: Nigeria/Benin (West Africa), Morocco (North Africa), South Africa, Kenya (East Africa), and Congo-Kinshasa (Central Africa). We cover key themes in womens and gender studies such as power relations, feminism, womens voices, and sexuality as well as broader historical issues including religion, health, and politics. Specific topics in African history include state-building, colonialism, nationalism, apartheid, and democratization. Students generally interested in African history or in women's and gender history will find this course useful.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 291 —  Making Modrn MidEast 1882-1952 Course count: 1 

The making of the modern Middle East began in the late 19th century when the Ottoman Empire, which, since the 16th century, controlled much of the region we today call the Middle East (with the exception of Iran), inaugurated a state-guided modernization movement in order to protect its territorial integrity and remain a great power. Despite its best efforts, increasing Ottoman vulnerability vis-a-vis the European powers and the Ottoman decision to side with Germany in the Great War resulted in the Entente powers dismantling of the Empire in 1920 following the war. They divided it into individual nation states each under French or British imperial control. From that time, the newly created nations of the Middle East (such as Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon)  guided by their imperial overlords and now separated from their Ottoman past  worked to create the basic institutions of the nation state (government, administration, army) and to develop a common sense of national identity and allegiance to these neophyte governments. This course examines the making of the modern Middle East from the late-19th to mid-20th centuries  a time of great political, socio-economic, and cultural transformation in the region. We will focus in particular on European imperialism in the Middle East, the rise of local nationalisms (such as Arab, Turkish, Jewish), the politics of nation-state formation, and the rise of feminist, workers, and student movements. One unit.

Students who took HIST 121 may not enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

HIST 292 —  Making of the Mod Mid East II Course count: 1 

This course examines the cultural and political history of the Middle East (Egypt, the Levant, Palestine/Israel, Iraq, Iran, Turkey and the Gulf States) from World War II until the recent Arab Uprisings. Through literature and film, the course highlights the major trends and themes in the history of the region including the effects of European imperialism and the Cold War, the Iranian Revolution, the birth of the oil economy, the rise of political Islam, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the U.S. led invasions of Iraq, and most recently, the Arab Uprisings and the rise of ISIS.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 293 —  Ottoman Empire 1/1300-1600 Course count: 1 

In the mid-16th century, all of Europe feared the power of the "Grand Turk," whose empire stretched from Baghdad to Budapest and from the Adriatic to the ports of the Red Sea. Its population was made up of Muslims, Christians, Jews, Turks, Greeks, Armenians, Arabs, Kurds, Serbs and Bosnians, to name a few. This course surveys the emergence of this demographically diverse and geographically vast Ottoman state from a small frontier principality into a world empire in its social, political and cultural contexts. Fulfills one non-Western requirement and one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Fall

HIST 296 —  South Africa & Apartheid Course count: 1 

South Africa's past is a painful history of deep racial discrimination, racialized violence, and segregation. But it is also a history of human resilience and the struggle for equality. This resilience is exemplified by the participation of women and men from diverse racial and social backgrounds, who struggled to end the racist policies of apartheid in South Africa. A course such as this one therefore draws students to debate some of the most important philosophies of an engaged Jesuit education, including a deep commitment to the well-being of the human community and the pursuit of a more just society. In dealing with the many controversies that mark South African history, students will develop their abilities to think critically and logically via weekly journal responses to course readings.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Cross-Cultural Studies, Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 305 —  America's First Global Age Course count: 1 

There is great talk about "globalization" and "global economies" during the late 20th and early 21st centuries. However, people living in America were touched by global economic processes as early as the time of Columbus. This course explores North America's first global age beginning in the 1400s and extending through the 1860s. It examines this history thematically by focusing on various kinds of trades and industries such as gold, fish, timber, tobacco, silver, sugar, alcohol, fur, coffee, tea, and cotton. In addition to economic processes, the course addresses the social, cultural, and political implications of these global trade connections for Americans of African, European, and Native descent. Fulfills one pre-modern/pre-industrial requirement for the major.

Prerequisite: HIST 200 or permission of the Instructor. Students who have taken MONT 102G in Fall 2016, or MONT 103G in Spring 2017 are unable to enroll in this course.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 314 —  Music/Sport/Cultural Encounter Course count: 1 

From aristocratic flute recitals to playoff games and rock festivals, human cultural expression takes place in social and political settings. Audiences are an intrinsic part of culture: Jackie Robinson integrated the stands, not just the playing field; some of George Harrison's fans learned Eastern Zen practice; Soviet teenagers sang "Jesus Christ Superstar." Inherently sensual, music and sports lend themselves viscerally to political, racial, ethnic, economic, and gendered contestation. We will explore case studies in this history: Bach, religion, and enlightened despotism; Robert and Clara Schumanns struggles with gendered expectations of artistry and family; ballet, "The Rite of Spring," bourgeois morals, and the modern audience as spectacle; the Olympics as proving grounds for liberal democracy and totalitarianism; Hispanics and racial categorization in North American baseball; the transatlantic musical invasions (rock/jazz in Europe, the Beatles in America); the Cold War as culture war; Korean hip-hop; and gender in rock and sport. As historic sites of participatory spectatorship and cross-cultural encounter, what can music halls and sports arenas teach us?

Prerequisite: HIST 200 or permission of the instructor.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 317 —  Pain & Suffering: US History Course count: 1 

This is a course in American religious and social thought from the late-18th century to the present. Through reading, discussion, and written assignments, students will explore the development of competing assumptions  rooted in various religious, political, and moral traditions  about the meaning of suffering in society in terms of causes, consequences, and obligations it creates within in the larger community. It begins with the development of humanitarianism in the context of American antislavery debates. It continues through the late-19th and early-20th centuries when the emergence of total war, systemic poverty, industrialization, and public health crises provoked widespread moral concern and political response through new media technologies that brought images of suffering to wider audiences. In studying the post-WWII era, the course revisits ongoing debates over the causes and consequences of poverty in an age of affluence, explores the role of suffering in nonviolent direct action movements of the civil rights and Vietnam era, and examines the sources of modern discourses on just war, humanitarian interventionism, torture, and human rights in the present. Students will have options to explore one or more of these themes in-depth through research projects.

Prerequisite: History majors must have HIST 200. Other majors must have taken one History course or permission.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Every Third Year

HIST 319 —  Joan of Arc & Medieval Warfare Course count: 1 

Joan of Arc has fascinated for centuries, yet continually eluded easy description. She is one of the most famous and best documented of all medieval individuals, yet she participated in public events for only two years, and died while still in her teens. This course explores Joans history and legacy, through sources generated during her lifetime, and those, including film, created in later centuries. It also examines the 115-year-long conflict between England and France and their allies, known as the Hundred Years War (1340-1455), in the context of medieval warfare in general. One unit.

Prerequisite: HIST 200.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

HIST 320 —  Crafted by War:Med Eng to 1485 Course count: 1 

Examines the political, social and economic developments in England and the Celtic fringe from 1216 through the accession of Henry VII in 1485. The course covers the growth of English common law and Parliament; agriculture and society, particularly during the years of demographic expansion in the 13th century and contraction after the Black Death; disturbances of the Hundred Years War; the Wars of the Roses; and the role of crime and violence. The course focuses not just on the chronological development of British culture, but also upon the historiography in the field. Thus, we will pay attention to how historians  both medieval and modern -- have written about and analyzed these topics. Students are required to develop sensitivity to historical interpretations and to the identification of methods and approaches within the field of medieval history.

Prerequisite: HIST 200 or HIST 231 or permission of the instructor.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years, Spring

HIST 322 —  War and Cinema Course count: 1 

Course examines the depiction of war in American and British cinema, contrasting filmed versions to historical events, and studying reception by audiences. Readings will include both analysis of the historical events and background to the filmed versions, and will stress historiography. Emphasis will be given to the nature of film as a primary source reflecting the perspectives of the society generating it. After a brief look at films made during and about World War One ("Big Parade," "J'Accuse," "Regeneration," "Paths of Glory"), we will be guided by Mark Harris's Five Came Back: A Story of Hollywood and the Second World War (2014), to study the effect of war on the work of five major directors (Ford, Stevens, Huston, Wyler, Capra), among others. Films studied will include "December 7th", "Mrs. Miniver," "Since You Went Away," "Cry Havoc!" "So Proudly We Hail," "Open City," "The Third Man," "The Best Years of Our Lives," "They Were Expendable."Other readings include: Greene, The Third Man; Henriksen, Dr. Strangelove's America; Basinger, WW2 Combat Film; Christensen, Reel Politics; Terkel, "The Good War"; Rollins, Hollywood as Historian; Rosenstone, Visions of the Past.

Prerequisite: HIST 200

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Every Third Year, Fall

HIST 327 —  Cultures of Cold War Course count: 1 

The superpower struggle that shaped the world post-1945 involved a competition not only for military might, but also for moral supremacy. During this time, the United States and the Soviet Union came to define themselvesin opposition to each other, both seeking to demonstrate the superiority of their respective social and political systems and advertise the alleged degeneracy of those of their arch-rivals. This course looks at how each country portrayed its own society and imagined that of its major global foe, and the way these representations often differed from reality. Because the major emphasis is on the shaping and re-shaping of values and identities, it draws heavily on cultural sources such as novels, short stories, films, cartoons, and music lyrics, aswell as other more traditional primary and secondary historical texts. One unit.

Prerequisite: HIST 200 or one 200-level course in 20th C U.S., European or Soviet history.

GPA units: 1

HIST 329 —  Collapse of Communism Course count: 1 

What led to the surprise collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991? Why did the country fail in numerous attempts, the first begun immediately after the death of Josef Stalin, to reform its political and economic system? What did Soviet citizens think about the world in which they lived, and the relationship of their world to that of the West? What about to that of China and the East? What has replaced the Soviet system  how is Russia today different from the Russia under Communist rule? Finally, what do we hope to learn from our study of the collapse? What kind of lessons about power, ideology, and freedom are to be found in the fate of the former Soviet superpower? This course will explore the final decades of the Soviet regime, the countrys troubled transition from Communism to capitalism, and the evolution of Communist and post-Communist identities and values. Above all, it will examine the different and conflicting studies of these topics that have been undertaken by different groups with different agendas at different times and assess their historical and political significance.

GPA units: 1

Typically Offered: Alternate Years

HIST 365 —  Resistance & Rev in Mod Africa Course count: 1 

A critical study of anti-colonial nationalist struggles and their outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. The course traces the political economy of colonialism; the origins, rise and dynamics of anti-colonial nationalism; the strategy of armed insurrection and the role of revolutionary socialism. Lastly, it grapples with aspects of post-colonial Africa that reveal the changing balance between internal and external forces in specific African nations, the ambiguities of African independence, and post-colonial debates on nation and nationalism.

Prerequisite: History majors must have HIST 200. Other majors must have taken one History course or permission.

GPA units: 1

Common Area: Historical Studies

Typically Offered: Alternate Years, Spring

HIST 401 —  Seminar Course count: 1 

An intensive research-oriented study on various themes; offered each semester; limited to 12 participants. One unit.

Enrollment limited to 3rd and 4th year students only

GPA units: 1

HIST 408 —  Tutorial Course count: 1 

Reading of selected sources, with individual written reports and discussion, under the direction of a member of the department. Students enrolled in a tutorial must receive the approval of the instructor. One unit.

GPA units: 1

HIST 420 —  Fourth Year Thesis Course count: 1 

An individual, student-designed, professor-directed, major research project. Usually available only to outstanding fourth-year majors. A lengthy final paper and public presentation are expected. Students engaged in a thesis may be nominated for Honors in History.

GPA units: 0

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 421 —  Fourth Year Thesis Course count: 1 

An individual, student-designed, professor-directed, major research project. Usually available only to outstanding fourth-year majors. A lengthy final paper and public presentation are expected. Students engaged in a thesis may be nominated for Honors in History.

Prerequisite: HIST 420

GPA units: 2

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 422 —  Advanced Research & Writing Colloquium Course count: 0 

This course is required of all History thesis writers who are working on research-based projects during their senior year. The colloquium has two aims: first, to assist students in developing and adapting the skills they will use in the course of researching, writing, and revising a 60-100 page manuscript and presenting their work orally to a broader audience (an advanced form of The Historians Craft); and second, to alleviate, as much as possible, the isolation of the thesis writing process by offering students both formal and informal opportunities for peer support and review.

GPA units: 0.5

Typically Offered: Annually

HIST 423 —  Advanced Research & Writing Colloquium Course count: 0 

This course is required of all History thesis writers who are working on research-based projects during their senior year. The colloquium has two aims: first, to assist students in developing and adapting the skills they will use in the course of researching, writing, and revising a 60-100 page manuscript and presenting their work orally to a broader audience (an advanced form of The Historians Craft); and second, to alleviate, as much as possible, the isolation of the thesis writing process by offering students both formal and informal opportunities for peer support and review.

GPA units: 0.5

Typically Offered: Annually