Spanish

Daniel Frost, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Chair
 

The Department of Spanish seeks to prepare students to understand and engage with the diverse Hispanic communities and traditions found within and beyond our borders. Our program emphasizes the acquisition of advanced Spanish language skills and in-depth study of Hispanic cultures, literature and linguistics. Spanish majors can complement their degree with courses in other academic programs at Holy Cross, including Latin American and Latino Studies. Interested Spanish majors can also receive their license to teach at the middle through secondary level through our partnership with the Teacher Education Program.

Our Study Abroad programs allow students from any major to perfect their language skills and study a variety of subjects while they experience life in Spanish-speaking countries. Study Abroad offerings include our signature year-long programs in Spain (León, A Coruña and Palma de Mallorca), as well as flexible programs in Peru (Lima), Argentina (Buenos Aires), and El Salvador (through the Casa de la Solidaridad) that allow students to choose from a semester, an extended semester, or a full academic year.

Our students benefit from close interaction with native Foreign Language Assistants from Spain, Peru, and Argentina in weekly practice sessions integrated into our language courses. Students can also participate in Community-Based Learning projects included in some of our classes. Outside the classroom, students have the opportunity to pursue further contact with Hispanic culture through the Spanish Club and, for those with strong academic credentials, the National Collegiate Hispanic Honor Society (Sigma Delta Pi). Moreover, our bilingual literary and cultural review fósforo: Revista de Inspiración Hispánica, provides a forum where students may publish their creative work alongside their professors, Foreign Language Assistants and other members of the community.

Major requirements. Students who will be majoring in Spanish must complete between 10 and 14 courses. More specifically, they are required to take one course from each of the eight areas below, plus two or more elective courses from any of these areas. One course offered on campus outside of the Spanish department that is directly relevant to the Spanish major may be counted as an elective, subject to approval by the department chair. Eligible courses may include a) Montserrat or Honors courses taught (in English or Spanish) by faculty in the Spanish department or b) courses taught in Spanish in other departments, such as RELS 290: Teología Andina. Majors are required to take at least two advanced (400-level) courses in their fourth year, again from any of the areas below. Of the two courses in area 1, SPAN 302 (Composition for Bilingual Speakers) is specifically targeted to native speakers of Spanish and heritage students with a high level of oral Spanish proficiency. SPAN 305 is a prerequisite to survey (or Readings) courses, which in turn are prerequisites to 400-level literature and culture courses. Hence, it is recommended that students take SPAN 305 as soon as feasible.

Note for current majors: Under new major requirements that took effect in academic year 2014-2015, ‘survey’ courses (SPAN 310, SPAN 311, SPAN 312, SPAN 313) have been replaced by Readings in Literature courses (listed as SPAN 308 and SPAN 399 in 2015-2016). Under the new requirements, majors must take one Readings course and two elective courses. However, students who have already taken a survey course may use that course to satisfy the Readings requirement. Students who have already taken two surveys will be unaffected by the change. Students who have taken one survey course may opt to take a Readings course as an elective, or another course from the areas listed below for which they have the prerequisite. Students who have not yet taken any survey courses will be required to take one Readings course to complete the major requirements.

 

SPANISH MAJOR CHECK LIST

Area 1: Composition and Conversation (one of the following courses)

_____ Spanish 301 “Spanish Composition and Conversation”

_____ Spanish 302 “Composition for Bilingual Speakers”

Area 2: Focused Language (one of the following courses)

_____ Spanish 314 “Spanish for Business”

_____ Spanish 315 “Advanced Spanish Composition and Conversation”

_____ Spanish 319 “Debate and Advanced Oral Expression”

_____ Spanish 320 “Spanish Translation”

Area 3: Culture and Cinema (one of the following courses)

_____ Spanish 303 “Aspects of Spanish Culture”

_____ Spanish 304 “Aspects of Latin American Culture”

_____ Spanish 420 “Topics in Latin American Film”

_____ Spanish 421 “Twentieth-Century Spain through Film”

Area 4: Linguistics (one of the following courses)

_____ Spanish 318 “Spanish Phonetics and Phonology”

_____ Spanish 413 “Spanish in the US: A Sociolinguistic Perspective”

_____ Spanish 414 “Second Language Acquisition and Spanish”

_____ Spanish 415 “Bilingualism in the Spanish-Speaking World”

Area 5: Textual Analysis

_____ Spanish 305 “Introduction to Textual Analysis”

Area 6: Readings in Literature (one of the following courses)

_____ “Readings in Peninsular Literature”

_____ Spanish 308 “Readings in Latin American Literature”

Area 7: Advanced pre-Modern Studies (one of the following courses)

_____ Spanish 400 “Topics in Medieval Spanish Literature”

_____ Spanish 401 “Topics in Golden Age Literature”

_____ Spanish 402 “Don Quixote”

_____ Spanish 409 “Topics in Colonial Latin American Literature”

Area 8: Advanced Modern Studies (one of the following courses)

_____ Spanish 403 “Topics in Modern Spanish Literature”

_____ Spanish 404 “Topics in Twentieth-Century Spanish Narrative”

_____ Spanish 405 “Topics in Modern Latin American Narrative”

_____ Spanish 406 “Topics in Modern Spanish Drama”

_____ Spanish 407 “Topics in Modern Peninsular and Latin American Poetry”

_____ Spanish 408 “Gabriel García Márquez”

_____ Spanish 410 “Literature of Exile, Immigration and Ethnicity”

_____ Spanish 409 "Federico García Lorca"

_____ Spanish 411 “Latin American Literature of the Nineteenth Century”

_____ Spanish 416 “Body and Text: Representations of Gender in Modern Spanish Literature”

_____ Spanish 450 “Latinidades in Literature and Pop Culture”

_____ Spanish 461 “Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Women Writers of Spain”

Study Abroad Credit: Spanish majors are strongly encouraged to study abroad at one of Holy Cross’s programs in Spain or Latin America. Students who attend year-long programs can use up to four Spanish courses taken abroad to satisfy the major requirements. Each of these courses should be equivalent to a semester-long class at Holy Cross (year-long courses at Spanish and Latin American universities count as two semester-long courses at Holy Cross). Typically, the year-long Spanish language and culture course that Holy Cross students must take abroad serves to satisfy both area 2 (Focused Language) and area 3 (Culture and Cinema) major requirements, but it can also be counted as an elective if the student has already satisfied one of these requirements. Students who attend semester programs can use up to two courses taken abroad to satisfy the major requirements. Upon their return from study abroad, students must still take two advanced (400-level) Spanish courses at Holy Cross in their senior year.

Directed Independent Study of Spanish: Students interested in learning Spanish have the option of taking Directed Independent Spanish Curriculum (DISC) courses. These elementary- and intermediate-level language courses offer an alternative approach to language instruction for students who are motivated to work independently and enjoy using technology. Students use computer-based materials to direct their own learning but are required both to correspond and to meet with a professor frequently as well as attend weekly conversation classes with Foreign Language Assistants.

Language Common Area Requirement: All Holy Cross students must satisfy the College’s common area requirement for language study (the “G” requirement). This requirement can be satisfied by two consecutive semesters of Spanish. Students who have not studied Spanish in high school can satisfy the requirement by completing two semesters of Spanish at the elementary level.

Placement through the Spanish Background Questionnaire: All students who plan to study Spanish at Holy Cross (including beginners, students planning to continue Spanish studied in high school, and native or heritage Spanish speakers) must first take the Spanish Background Questionnaire to determine the appropriate entry course for enrollment. The Background Questionnaire takes into account previous experience with Spanish and any advanced placement (AP or IB) test scores that you have earned to determine whether you need to take the Spanish Placement exam.

Native and Heritage Speakers of Spanish (students who speak or hear Spanish at home or in their local community but who may not have formally studied the language) will be placed according to their responses on the Spanish Background Questionnaire. Note that native speakers and heritage students with a high level of oral Spanish proficiency will typically start with SPAN 302 (Composition for Bilingual Speakers), but they may be able to enroll in other courses (particularly SPAN 303, 304 or 305) depending on their responses to the Background Questionnaire.

College Credit for Advanced Placement: A score of 4 or 5 on an AP Language exam earns college credit and counts towards the language studies common area requirement; a score of 4 or 5 on a Literature exam earns college credit and counts towards the language studies or literature common area requirement. Students with AP credit in Spanish earn placement in the curriculum but not progress toward the minimum number of courses required by the major. Students with AP or IB credit will be advised of their placement in Spanish by taking the obligatory Spanish Background Questionnaire.

Courses

Spanish Courses

Spanish
101
Elementary Spanish
Annually

Annually The first course in the two-semester elementary sequence, which provides an introduction to all elements of the Spanish language and the culture of the Hispanic world. Only students who have not studied Spanish in high school can enroll in this course. Five class hours weekly, including two hours of practicum. One and one-quarter units.

Spanish
101
Elementary Spanish 1
Annually

The first course in the two-semester elementary sequence, which provides an introduction to all elements of the Spanish language and the culture of the Hispanic world. Only students who have not studied Spanish in high school can enroll in this course. Five class hours weekly, including two hours of practicum. One and one-quarter units.

Spanish
102
Elementary Spanish 2
Fall, spring

The second course in the two-semester elementary sequence, which provides an introduction to all elements of the Spanish language and the culture of the Hispanic world. For students who have completed Spanish 101 or its equivalent. Five class hours weekly, including two hours of practicum. One unit and one-quarter units.

Spanish
103
Intensive Elementary Spanish
Annually

An intensive review of all the topics covered in both Spanish 101 and 102. Five class hours weekly, including two hours of practicum. One and one-quarter units.

Spanish
105
Directed Independent Elementary Spanish 1
Fall, spring

An alternative approach to Spanish 101 which allows students to complete course requirements by working independently with technology-based materials. Two class hours weekly and laboratory practice. One unit.

Spanish
106
Directed Independent Elementary Spanish 2
Fall, spring

An alternative approach to Spanish 102 which allows students to complete course requirements by working independently with technology-based materials. Two class hours weekly and laboratory practice. One unit.

Spanish
108
Directed Independent Intensive Elementary
Fall, spring

An alternative approach to Span 103 which allows students to complete course requirements by working
independently with technology-based materials. Two class hours weekly and laboratory practice. One unit.

Spanish
201
Intermediate Spanish 1
Fall, spring

The first course in the two-semester intermediate sequence, this class provides further practice in all aspects of the Spanish language, with a continued focus on Hispanic culture. For students who have completed Spanish 102 or its equivalent. Four class hours weekly, including one hour of practicum. One unit.

Spanish
202
Intermediate Spanish 2
Fall, spring

The second course in the two-semester intermediate sequence, this class provides further practice in all aspects of the Spanish language, with a continued focus on Hispanic culture. For students who have completed Spanish 201 or its equivalent. Four class hours weekly, including one hour of practicum. One unit.

Spanish
215
Directed Independent Intermediate Spanish 1
Fall, spring

An alternative approach to Spanish 201 which allows students to complete course requirements by working independently with technology-based materials. One class hour weekly and laboratory practice. One unit.

Spanish
216
Directed Independent Intermediate Spanish 2
Fall, spring

An alternative approach to Spanish 202 which allows students to complete course requirements by working independently with technology-based materials. One class hour weekly and laboratory practice. One unit.

Spanish
217
Directed Independent Intensive Intermediate Spanish
Fall, spring

An intensive review of all the topics covered in both Spanish 201/215 and 202/216 using an alternative approach which allows students to complete course requirements by working independently with technology-based materials. One class hour weekly and laboratory practice. One unit.

Spanish
219
Directed Independent Medical Spanish
Fall, spring

A course which integrates science-based vocabulary and health-related cultural issues into a post-intermediate language curriculum. Medical Spanish continues to provide grammar and vocabulary instruction while developing writing, reading, speaking and listening skills required for effective communication with Spanish speaking clients. One hour per week of practicum required. Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or the equivalent. One unit.

Spanish
301
Spanish Composition and Conversation
Fall, spring

A prerequisite to other 300- and 400-level courses taught in Spanish, this course provides intensive composition and conversation practice while solidifying the student’s command of Spanish grammar and vocabulary. Though the main focus is on speaking and writing, the course also emphasizes listening, reading and the development of a better understanding of the Hispanic world. Includes two one-hour Practicum sessions. Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or the equivalent. One unit.

Spanish
302
Composition for Bilingual Speakers
Fall, spring

A prerequisite to other 300 and 400 level courses taught in Spanish, this course is the equivalent of Spanish 301 for native speakers and heritage speakers with a high level of oral proficiency. The course provides intensive reading and writing practice through the analysis and discussion of works of contemporary Latino writers and filmmakers as well as some review of vocabulary and common grammatical structures. One unit.

Spanish
303
Aspects of Spanish Culture
Annually

This course covers the history and culture of Spain from prehistoric times to the present, including primitive cultures, Roman Spain, the Muslim invasion, the Reconquest, Imperial Spain, the age of Enlightenment, and modern Spain. The course will focus on the most relevant political, historical, social, and artistic manifestations of each period. Special emphasis will be given to outstanding cultural and artistic examples (i.e. architecture, painting, philosophy, and literature), as well as to the evolution of thought and ideology throughout the centuries. Through the use of a wide range of audiovisual materials, cultural readings, and online newspapers, students will have the opportunity to familiarize themselves with current political and social events in Spain and conduct research on a topic of their interest, which they will present in class at the end of the semester. Prerequisites: Spanish 301 or 302 or the equivalent. One unit.

Spanish
304
Aspects of Spanish-American Culture
Annually

Devoted to the study of examples of Spanish-American culture from pre-Columbian times to the present, including the early civilizations, the colonial period, the struggles for independence, the modern period and Hispanics in the U.S. Readings, lectures, and discussions in Spanish. Includes a Community-Based Learning project in the local Latino community. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisites: Spanish 301 or 302 or the equivalent. One unit.

Spanish
305
Introduction to Literary Genres
Fall, spring

Designed as an introduction to drama, poetry, and prose fiction of 20th-century Spain and Spanish America, this course familiarizes students with literary analysis and further develops their oral and written skills. The course is a prerequisite to all other literature courses at the 300 and 400 level. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 301 or 302 or the equivalent. One unit.

Spanish
308
Readings in Latin American Literatures
Alternate years

A thematic examination of Latin American literature from Colonial times to the present day. Through representative readings form the rich variety of Hispanic cultures in Latin America, including South and Central America, the Caribbean, and U.S. Latino culture, the course teaches students to analyze primary and secondary sources related to a particular theme as well as to contextualize representative primary texts' significance within Latin American culture. A variety of writing, reading, and research exercises will help students to form and present their own perspectives on Latin American literatures and to enhance their writing and speaking skills. A semester of Readings is a prerequisite to 400-level literature courses. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305. One unit.

Spanish
314
Spanish for Business
Alternate years

This course seeks to expand the students’ overall command of Spanish and develop their ability to communicate effectively in a variety of formal and professional settings. The class covers key terminology and grammatical structures, focusing on areas such as advertising, tourism, transportation, international travel, imports, exports, human resources, financing and job hunting, among others. The course emphasizes both oral and written skills, and it also addresses cross-cultural differences in business practices and etiquette. Prerequisite: Spanish 301 or 302 or the equivalent. One unit.

Spanish
315
Advanced Spanish Composition and Conversation
Fall, spring

In a small group setting, this course helps students perfect their conversational and writing skills while exploring contemporary Spanish and Latin American culture. Through the analysis of literary selections and the viewing of films on Latin American and Latino issues, the course seeks to provide further practice in all the skills of advanced language study, including pronunciation and difficult grammatical structures. One hour per week of practicum required. Prerequisite: Spanish 301 or 302 or the equivalent. One unit.

Spanish
318
Phonetics and Phonology
Every third year

This course is aimed at students seeking to improve their pronunciation of Spanish and their knowledge of the sound system of Spanish. It provides an overview of articulatory phonetics and the sound system of the standard language and other varieties, as well as hands-on practice with diction, phonetic transcription and pronunciation analysis. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Span 305. One unit.

Spanish
319
Debate and Advanced Oral Expression
Alternate years

This course provides students with the opportunity, resources and stimuli to refine their oral skills in Spanish through structured and meaningful practice. Students will use language in context to expand self-expression through a variety of activities: poetry recitation, dialogues, role playing, debates and oral presentations. This course will also acquaint students with the rhythms, intonations and gestures typical of contemporary spoken Spanish. Students will use a variety of resources: literary texts, films, newspaper articles, and video interviews (reflecting a wide range of dialectal variation) and will explore controversial topics designed to provoke substantive conversation. Finally, frequent writing assignments and research tasks will complement the main emphasis on development of oral skills. Native speakers are not eligible to enroll in this course. Prerequisite: Span 301 or 302. One unit.

Spanish
399
Special Topics
Annually

New offerings at the pre-advanced (300) level in Hispanic linguistics, literature or culture. Topic varies with each separate offering. One unit.

Spanish
400
Topics in Medieval Spanish Literature
Alternate years

Focuses on different aspects of Medieval Spanish Literature. Topics previously offered have included Medieval Heroes, Saints and Sinners, The Image of Women, Love in Medieval Spain, Death and Dying. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey (preferably Spanish 310). One unit.

Spanish
401
Topics in Golden Age Literature
Alternate years

Focuses on different aspects of Spanish Golden Age Literature. Topics previously offered have included Golden Age Drama and its Staging, Spanish Golden Age Sentimental Fiction, and The Evolution of Spanish Romance. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and one semester of survey (preferably Spanish 310). One unit.

Spanish
402
Don Quixote
Alternate years

A close reading of Cervantes’s masterpiece in order to provide a coherent understanding of the author’s attitude toward life and art. Through an analysis of such elements as point of view, plot structure, characterization, interpolated novels and poems, language, and irony, the course defines Cervantes’s conception of narrative prose fiction and his role as the originator of the modern novel. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey or Readings. One unit.

Spanish
403
Topics in Modern Spanish Literature
Every third year

Thematic studies of literature and culture in Spain from the late Enlightenment to the fin de siglo. Focusing on the relationship between writing, culture, and modernization, the course considers some of the ways in which authors such as Jovellanos, Mesonero Romanos, Larra, Bécquer, de Castro, Pardo Bazán, and Galdós helped determine the course of romanticism, realism, and naturalism in Spain. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey (preferably Spanish 311). One unit.

Spanish
404
Topics in 20th-Century Spanish Narrative
Every third year

A study of major trends in writing after the realist and naturalist eras in Spain. Through works by authors such as Unamuno, Pío Baroja, Cela, Sender, and Matute, this course examines the formal and thematic characteristics of Spanish narrative before and after the Spanish Civil War. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey (preferably Spanish 311). One unit.

Spanish
405
Topics in Modern Spanish-American Narrative
Every third year

Explores the response of several modern Spanish-American writers to the following questions: What is fiction? What are the roles of the author, the narrator, and the reader? Special attention is given to such outstanding novelists of the “Boom” as Rulfo, Cortázar, Cabrera Infante and García Márquez, and to the development of their works within the context of the modern novel. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey (preferably Spanish 313). One unit.

Spanish
406
Topics in Modern Spanish Drama
Every third year

Focuses on the different trends of 20th-century Peninsular theatre: poetic theatre, socio-political theatre, theatre of the absurd, guerrilla theatre, and feminist theatre. Students will examine relevant linguistic, stylistic, and literary components of the plays while exploring how the topics and themes developed in these works relate to some of the most important political, social, and moral conflicts of modern Spain. Includes readings from such representative playwrights as Federico García Lorca, Antonio Buero Vallejo, Alfonso Sastre, Antonio Gala, Fernando Arrabal, Lidia Falcón, Paloma Pedrero, and Concha Romero. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey (preferably Spanish 311). One unit.

Spanish
407
Topics in Modern Spanish and Spanish-American Poetry
Alternate years

Examines various aspects of Spanish and Spanish-American poetry since Modernismo. Among these are: Rubén Darío and Modernismo; Antonio Machado; Hispanic vanguard poetry; the Grupo poético de 1927; Pablo Neruda; and Spanish-American social poetry. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey (preferably Spanish 311 or 313). One unit.

Spanish
408
Gabriel García Márquez
Every third year

Provides a general introduction and overview of García Márquez’ writing career and analyzes some of his most notable novels. Students learn to read works analytically in order to uncover the relationship between the aesthetic and historical dimensions of García Márquez’ literary universe. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey (preferably Spanish 313). One unit.

Spanish
409
Topics in Colonial Spanish-American Literature
Alternate years

An advanced course on the origins of Spanish-American literature. Readings emphasize the diversity of the colonial period, with in-depth analyses of works from several major genres. Discussion focuses on the significance of these works from a contemporary perspective as well as on the historical and cultural distance that separates us from the world views contained therein. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey (preferably Spanish 312). One unit.

Spanish
409
Federico García Lorca
Alternate years

A study of the life and works of Spanish poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca. Through analysis of his poems and plays, as well as his letters and speeches, the seminar will contextualize García Lorca's works within the complex political, social and literary movements during his lifetime. Discussion will focus on the power with which theater and poetry can communicate such vital and controversial human themes as gender identity, political ideology, freedom of self, feminist issues, public behavior and private desires, inequality, death, race and religion. Taught entirely in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of Readings or the equivalent. One unit.

Spanish
410
Literature of Exile, Immigration, and Ethnicity
Alternate years

A study of the novels of Puerto Rican, Mexican-American, U.S. Dominican, and Cuban-American writers from 1970 to the present. Explores how the experience of biculturality and displacement is dramatized in the literature of these authors. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey (preferably Spanish 313). One unit.

Spanish
413
Spanish in the US: A Sociolinguistic Perspective
Alternate years

This course examines the presence and use of Spanish in the United States, with a particular focus on the most salient sociolinguistic aspects characterizing Latino communities in this country. Among other areas, the course focuses on topics such as bilingualism, language acquisition, language maintenance and loss, ‘Spanglish’ and other language-contact phenomena, bilingual education, the Official English movement, linguistic identity and ideology, and the interaction between language, gender, race, social class and ethnicity. Includes an optional Community-Based Learning Project in the local Latino community. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Two 300-level courses beyond Spanish 301 or 302 or the equivalent. One unit.

Spanish
414
Second Language Acquisition and Spanish
Alternate years

This course offers an introduction to the study of second language acquisition, with a particular focus on Spanish. Among other topics, the course examines age-related effects on language acquisition, the difference between learning a second language and acquiring our native tongue, study abroad, ‘immersion’ vs. classroom learning contexts, the role of input and output practice, ‘heritage speakers’, theories of language acquisition, and approaches to second language teaching. Moreover, the course also explores different areas of development in Spanish as a second language, including pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and sociolinguistic and pragmatic competence. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Two 300-level courses beyond Spanish 301 or 302 or the equivalent. One unit.

Spanish
416
Body and Text: Representations of Gender in Modern Spanish Literature
Every third year

This advanced literature course explores the evolution of the concept of gender and its literary representations in 19th- through 21st-century Peninsular writings. Students will examine the influence of Church and State on gender formation and explore the body as a site of conflict and, ultimately, awareness. Through the study of particular essays, novels, and short stories, this course analyzes the social and aesthetic tensions between the traditional ideal of the sexes (i.e. women and men as belonging to separate and irreconcilable spheres) and the revolutionary emerging notion of the “new woman,” whose role is no longer confined to the home. The selected texts reflect these different representations of gender while highlighting the tensions and transitions between the old and the new social roles. This course is reading intensive and is conducted entirely in Spanish. Format: Lecture and discussion. Strong student participation is expected. Prerequisites: Spanish 305 and one semester of Survey (preferably Span 311) One unit.

Spanish
420
Topics in Latin American Film
Every third year

Serves as an introduction to film analysis, studies the development of the medium in Latin America, and explores issues of cultural difference through discussion of the cinematic portrayal of representative historical periods, figures, and intellectual and political movements. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305. One unit.

Spanish
421
20th-Century Spain through Film
Alternate years

Studies some of the most relevant historical, political, and social issues in 20th-century Spain as depicted through film. Focuses on films which portray Spain at its different historical stages (pre-Franco era, Francoist Spain, transition era, and modern Spain). Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305. One unit.

Spanish
450
Latinidades in Literature and Pop Culture
Alternate years

A seminar dedicated to exploring the ways in which U.S. Latina and Latino identities (Latinidades) are constructed in literature and popular culture. Through a variety of texts, including poetry, theater, fiction, and graphic novels, students will explore questions surrounding how nation-specific identities both work with and challenge the monolithic label of Latina/o. Theoretical texts will help guide such questions as: What does it mean to be a Latina/o? How do we construct and assume Latinidad? How are Latinidades reflected in literature and pop culture? Do these art forms challenge or reaffirm mainstream stereotypes about Latinos? In what ways are literature and pop culture viable means to discuss differences and pluralities (Latinidades) among Chicanos, Dominicans, Cubans, Colombians, Puerto Ricans, and other groups? How do questions of race, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship, and language enter into a discussion about identity construction? Readings and other media will be in Spanish, English, and Spanglish. All discussions will be conducted in Spanish. Prerequisites:  Spanish 305 and one semester of Readings or its equivalent (preferably Spanish 308).

Spanish
461
19th- and 20th-Century Women Writers of Spain
Alternate years

Examines some of the outstanding women writers of the 19th and 20th centuries of Spanish literature. Explores the most prominent literary, social, cultural, and existential issues expressed in their works. These works are studied in the context of the major trends of European literature in the past two centuries. Conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish 305 and a semester of survey (preferably Spanish 311). One unit.

Spanish
491, 492
Third-Year Tutorial
Annually

Eligible third-year students may elect one or both of these courses only with the permission of the Department Chair. Tutorials are offered only to students who have taken previously all other advanced courses offered in a given semester. One unit each semester.

Spanish
493, 494
Fourth-Year Tutorial
Annually

Eligible fourth-year students may elect one or both of these courses only with the permission of the Department Chair. Tutorials are offered only to students who have taken previously all other advanced courses offered in a given semester. One unit each semester.

Spanish
499
Special Topics
Annually

New offerings at the advanced (400) level in Hispanic linguistics, literature or culture. Topic and prerequisites vary with each separate offering. One unit.