Faculty-Dept-Philosophy

Philosophy

Jeffrey A. Bernstein, Ph.D., Professor

Lawrence E. Cahoone, Ph.D., Professor and Chair

Predrag Cicovacki, Ph.D., Professor

Christopher A. Dustin, Ph.D., Professor

Joseph P. Lawrence, Ph.D., Professor

May Sim, Ph.D., Professor

William E. Stempsey, S.J., M.Div., Ph.D., Professor

Karsten R. Stueber, Ph.D., Professor

Andrea Borghini, Ph.D., Associate Professor

John P. Manoussakis, Ph.D., Associate Professor

Kendy Hess, Ph.D., Associate Professor

Janez Percic, S.J., Ph.D., International Visiting Jesuit

William Woody, S.J., M.A., Pre-Doctoral Teaching Fellow

Teresa Fenichel, Ph.D., Visiting Assistant Professor

Frances Maughan-Brown, Ph.D., Visiting Lecturer

 

Philosophy is concerned with fundamental questions about the nature of reality; the foundations of science, ethics and art; and the nature and scope of human knowledge. Philosophy is actually the meeting place for all disciplines, for any discipline becomes philosophical once it begins seriously to examine its own methodology and fundamental presuppositions. Ultimately, philosophy is much more than the acquisition of a certain kind of knowledge. It is the ability to think reflectively and to raise questions about problems that lie at the root of what might appear self-evident. The study of philosophy is therefore recommended to all students, regardless of their major.

Philosophy involves both systematic forms of inquiry and a prolonged reflection upon its own history. For its majors, minors and all students interested in deepening their liberal arts education, the department offers courses in the history of philosophy that span the entire tradition from the pre-Socratics to the philosophers of our own century. These historical courses are best pursued in conjunction with courses that cover the principal areas of philosophical inquiry (Metaphysics, Ethics, Epistemology, and Aesthetics). Courses reserved exclusively for first-year students are all sections of Philosophical Inquiries (Phil 110). Students are permitted to take only one course at this level.

The department offers both a major and a minor program that combines necessary structure with the freedom to follow an individually oriented course of study. The minimum requirement for a major is 10 semester courses in philosophy. Majors are required to choose courses from the following categories: A) Two Courses in the History of Philosophy: 1) either Ancient (225) or Medieval Philosophy (230); 2) either Early Modern (235) or Modern Philosophy (241), or equivalent courses. B) One Course in Theoretical Philosophy: either Metaphysics (201); Theory of Knowledge (209), Philosophy of Mind (261), Philosophy of Language (262), Philosophy of Science (271), Philosophy of Biology (272), Phenomenology (245), or equivalent courses. C) One Course in Practical Philosophy: either Ethics (204); Foundations of Ethics (207); Medical Ethics (250), Political Philosophy (265); Environmental Political Philosophy,Theory of Value (256), Philosophy of Art (260), or equivalent courses. D) One Course in Logic: either Symbolic Logic (215), Logic and Language (242), or equivalent courses. E) In addition to these courses, students must take at least two advanced (300-level) seminars. Students should work closely with their advisor and consult with the department Chair to determine how these requirements are best fulfilled  in conjunction with their individual interests. Students are strongly encouraged to satisfy requirements A)-D) as early as possible within their program of study.

The minimum requirement for the minor is six semester courses in philosophy. Minors are required to complete the following courses: 1) one course in the history of Philosophy, typically either Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern or Modern Philosophy (or other courses that cover these periods) ; 2) one course in either theoretical or practical philosophy as defined above and 3) at least one advanced 300-level seminar.

In addition to a wide range of regular courses and seminars, the department offers tutorials and other opportunities for independent study. The departmental Honors program is designed to provide outstanding majors with an enhanced opportunity for independent research and sustained philosophical reflection during their senior year. Under the supervision of an advisor, students admitted into the program will engage in a yearlong thesis project resulting in a polished piece of philosophical writing which is formally presented at the end of the year. Eligible students are invited to apply to the Honors program in the second semester of their junior year. Further information about the program (eligibility requirements, details about the application process, and the structure of the program itself) is posted on the departmental website. Majors who think they might be interested in the departmental Honors program should consult with the department chair.

Faculty and students together benefit from regular departmental colloquia and the lively exchanges initiated by the Philosophy Club, which is open to all interested students. In addition, membership in the Holy Cross Chapter of the National Honor Society in Philosophy, Phi Sigma Tau, is available to those who have a strong academic record, participate in the life of the department, and demonstrate a desire and ability to philosophize. Students are encouraged to compete for two essay competitions, the Strain Gold Medal and the Markham Memorial Scholarship.

 

Courses

Philosophy Courses

Introductory Courses
Philosophy
110
Philosophical Inquiries
Fall, spring

In a certain way, philosophy needs no introduction. Each of us has had moments of wonder: “Why do we exist?” “Why is there so much suffering in the world?” “Why does the world itself exist?” This one-semester course for first-year students helps strengthen that sense of wonder by giving the student insight into what some of the greatest thinkers have had to say about these questions. Readings from Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Descartes and Kant. One unit.

Intermediate Courses
Philosophy
201
Metaphysics
Annually

Aristotle described metaphysics as the “science which takes up the theory of being as being and of what ‘to be’ means taken by itself.” Before and since Aristotle, the meaning and significance of metaphysics has been in dispute. While some thinkers have dismissed metaphysics as meaningless speculation, others have held it to be the center of Western philosophy. Using primary texts of classical and contemporary writers, this course studies the origins of metaphysics in ancient Greece, major developments of metaphysical thinking, and contemporary challenges to metaphysics. One unit.

Philosophy
204
Ethics
Annually

A study of moral philosophy with a twofold aim: (1) to give students an appreciation of the important historical and theoretical developments in moral philosophy; (2) to help students to think, write and speak clearly about important moral issues of our time. Examines both the thought of important Western philosophers such as Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill, and topics of contemporary concern in personal and social ethics. One unit.

Philosophy
207
Foundations of Ethics
Annually

Considers various challenges to the claims of morality, and whether and how moral philosophy can meet these challenges. Special topics include: the nature and justification of an ethical life, the limits of practical reasoning, the subjectivity vs. the objectivity of value, relativism, conflicts of obligation, the idea of moral “truth,” and the sources and ultimate value of morality itself. Examines how these issues come to life in classical texts, and how they are treated in recent philosophical literature. The goal is to understand the foundations of morality (if there are any), and to gain insight into what is perhaps the most striking thing about human life-the fact that we have values. One unit.

Philosophy
209
Theory of Knowledge
Annually

Do you know that you are not a brain in a vat being force-fed experiences by an evil scientist? This course considers Descartes’ skeptical arguments that we can’t really know whether the world is the way it appears to us. These skeptical arguments lead us to consider what knowledge is, whether “knowledge” means the same thing in the philosophy classroom as it means outside it, and what justifies our beliefs. Writings of contemporary analytic philosophers are read and discussed. One unit.

Philosophy
215
Symbolic Logic
Alternate years

An introductory study of the formal structure of reasoning patterns such as deduction. Includes an introduction to formal languages, sentential calculus, predicate calculus, and an investigation into logic’s value and limits. One unit.

Philosophy
224
Contemporary Continental Philosophy
Alternate years

Focuses on a theme or question of general scope within continental European philosophy since Nietzsche. Topics may include subjectivity, historical consciousness, technology, and plurality. Philosophical approaches may include phenomenology, hermeneutics, existentialism, psychoanalysis, the Frankfurt School, and poststructuralism. One unit.

Philosophy
225
Ancient Philosophy
Annually

We start by looking at the Presocratics (sixth and fifth centuries B.C.) to witness the emergence of philosophical, scientific, ethical and religious thinking. We will follow the similarities and differences of these Presocratics to trace the kinds of questions they set and the kinds of answers they accept. Addressing many of the same questions bequeathed to them by the Presocratics, the Ancients offered new solutions. We will think with the great thinkers about alternative conceptions of the divine, first principles and causes, form and matter, atoms and the void. Wonder along with Plato, Aristotle, Lucretius and Epictetus about happiness in relation, reason and desire, and our place in society and in the universe. One unit.

Philosophy
230
Medieval Philosophy
Annually

A study of selected medieval thinkers such as Augustine, Boethius, Dionysius, Anselm, Bonaventure, and Aquinas. The birth of scholasticism, an analysis of this philosophical movement in the 13th century, and its decline are presented. One unit.

Philosophy
235
Early Modern Philosophy
Fall

A study of the origins of modern philosophy: Descartes’ turning toward the subject; his attempt at a justified method guided by the ideal of mathematical certainty; his influence on the development of European rationalism, Spinoza, Leibniz. Equal attention will be given to empiricist philosophers such as Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume and their approaches to philosophy and science. One unit.

Philosophy
241
Modern Philosophy
Spring

A study of the later development of modern philosophy including Kant’s new evaluation of metaphysics, epistemology, the nature of the sciences and morality and the idealist thought of Fichte and Hegel. Attention also to the thought of those opposing idealism, especially Marx and Kierkegaard. One unit.

Philosophy
242
Logic and Language
Fall

An introduction to the 20th-century analytic philosophy and philosophy of language, which to a large part is guided by the conviction that traditional philosophical problems are based on linguistic and logical confusions. Familiarizes students with the formal languages of modern sentential and predicate logic, whose development was so important for the philosophical thinking within this tradition. It will reflect on the importance of language for understanding the world and will investigate related semantic concepts such as meaning, reference and truth. One unit.

Philosophy
243
American Philosophy
Alternate years

While philosophy in America has been strongly influenced by English “analytic” philosophy and French and German “Continental” philosophy, there is a distinctive tradition of American philosophy that preceded these imports. Its most famous exponents thrived from mid-19th through the early-20th centuries, and created a unique philosophical perspective on experience, action, nature, and democracy, sometimes called  “pragmatism.” We will read key members of that tradition, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, George Herbert Mead, and John Dewey. One unit.

Philosophy
244
Twentieth Century Philosophy
Alternate years

This course examines and compares key writings of prominent traditions into which 20th-century Western philosophy split: analytic or “Anglo-American” philosophy, “continental” or European philosophy, and “classical American” philosophy or pragmatism. Readings will include works of Peirce, Frege, Russell, Husserl, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, and Dewey on issues of knowledge, language, existence, and the nature of philosophy. One unit.

Philosophy
245
Phenomenology
Alternate years

Explores the motivation and the methods of phenomenological philosophy. Focus is on Husserl’s development of phenomenology as a “rigorous science,” and its critical revision. Topics include the relation of Husserl’s “transcendental” project to the classical metaphysical tradition, the distinction between “pure” and “applied” phenomenology, the idea of a phenomenological psychology, and the influence of phenomenology in the philosophy of art. Readings include works by Husserl, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, and others. One unit.

Philosophy
246
Philosophy and Literature
Alternate years

Explores the relationship between philosophy and literature. Reveals the enormous impact of philosophy on literary texts and tries to show how philosophy is present in all forms of intellectual life. Also tries to take seriously literature’s claim to be doing something that philosophy itself cannot do. The authors chosen vary, but include such figures as Shakespeare, Goethe, Nietzsche, Thomas Mann and Proust. One unit.

Philosophy
247
Environmental Political Philosophy
Alternate years

The Western philosophical ethical tradition is anthropocentric, meaning that what is good or right is based upon the wants, needs and interests of humans. From such a perspective, the environment is regarded as a resource to be managed or exploited for the benefit of people. Many contemporary environmental ethicists carry on in this tradition, while others argue for an expanded ethical theory — one that takes into account the intrinsic values of animals, plants, species, ecosystems, and perhaps even the earth as a whole. In this course we will survey these different approaches with an eye to whether or not they are defensible. In doing so, we will consider issues such as animals rights, population control, the rights of future generations and wildlife restoration (e.g., prairies, forests). One unit.

Philosophy
248
Existentialism
Alternate years

Existentialism was a movement in recent (1850-1950) French and German philosophy that heavily influenced subsequent European thought and literature. It saw human beings as free and troubled, lacking guidance from tradition, God, and nature. This course explores existentialism through a reading of its philosophical exponents (Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, Tillich) and literary and philosophical authors (Dostoevsky, Camus). Both religious and atheistic existentialism are considered. One unit.

Philosophy
250
Medical Ethics
Annually

Examines topics of current interest in biomedical ethics, and the role moral philosophy plays in public debate about controversial issues. Aim is to help students think, speak, and write clearly about these issues. Discusses moral justification and an overview of several types of ethical theory. Considers such issues as the physician-patient relationship, truth-telling and confidentiality, informed consent, reproductive technologies, abortion, the right to die, euthanasia and assisted suicide, the AIDS epidemic, human genetics, and justice in the distribution of health care. One unit.

Philosophy
254
Philosophy East and West
Alternate years

In this course, we shall consider the thoughts of Western traditions such as Platonism, Aristotelianism, Ephesianism, Stoicism and Epicureanism. These will be paired with Asian traditions such as Confucianism, Hinduism, Daoism, and Buddhism. We’ll explore these thinkers’ answers to philosophical questions about the nature of reality, the self/soul, knowledge, ethics and politics. Though the pairings are designed to facilitate comparison, we shall be alert for differences as much as similarities in the ways our focal issues are asked and answered. Comparisons will expose strengths and weaknesses that may not have appeared without them. Quite different traditions may even offer solutions to each other’s problems. Above all, this is a course that provides the resources as well as the occasion for cross-cultural understanding at a fundamental, philosophical level.

Philosophy
255
Asian Philosophy
Alternate years

What is the ultimate goal of human existence, if any? Are there qualities of persons or actions that promote harmony with the community or with nature at large? Is there a soul that exists beyond this life? Is there really a ‘self’ at all? Is there a permanent reality beneath the visible world of change — or is the motley of change all there is to the world? We shall explore these fundamental philosophical questions through key Asian traditions of wisdom such as Confucianism, Daoism, Hinduism and Buddhism. Not only is an understanding of these wisdom traditions valuable in themselves, it’ll also help us understand better the Asian nations which social, political, ethical and cultural practices are founded on Asian philosophy. One unit.

Philosophy
256
Theory of Values
Alternate years

This course will examine the central questions dealing with the origin, nature, and conflicts of values: How are values created? Are different kinds of values (moral, aesthetic, spiritual, vital, economic, etc.) of the same origin? Do all values exist independently of people’s minds? How are values different from facts? How to resolve the conflicts of values? Could there be one objective hierarchy of values, or are values intrinsically subjective? Could our better understanding of values help us in structuring and guiding our lives? One unit.

Philosophy
260
Philosophy of Art
Alternate years

By reflecting on what philosophers have said about art, this course investigates the idea that art itself performs a philosophical, perhaps even a moral, function. Art is supposed by many to have the power to reveal something, and to be in some way “good” for us. In considering whether this is so, we have to confront two basic questions. The first is: Are there any “truths” about art (about what art is, about the purpose of art, about what makes art good or bad, etc.)? The second is: does art really reveal “truths” (What kind of truths? Truths about what? Can these truths be rationally articulated? If not, why should we take art seriously?) We shall concentrate on these, and related questions. Readings from Plato, Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, Freud, Heidegger, Kandinsky, and Iris Murdoch. One unit.

Philosophy
261
Philosophy of Mind
Annually

Questions concerning the nature of the mind and its relation to the body or questions about the essential capacities of human beings distinguishing them from plants, animals, and machines are raised. Different traditional and contemporary themes about the nature of the mind are discussed critically. Emphasizes topics such as the mind-body problem, the nature of consciousness, the explanation of action, and the problem of intentionality. One unit.

Philosophy
264
Philosophy of History
Alternate years

Focuses on the growth of historical consciousness in the modern epoch, although it may also give attention to such Christian thinkers as Augustine. Emphasizes the contrast between the boldly progressive vision of Hegel, which celebrates scientific culture as the goal of history, and the more traditional vision of Vico (the Italian philosopher), which embodies a cyclical moment and defines historical culture more in terms of poetry than of science. Other authors typically read include Kant, Herder, Burckhardt, Nietzsche, Löwith, and Collingwood. One unit.

Philosophy
265
Political Philosophy
Annually

Political philosophy addresses the questions of how human beings ought to live together, what makes power legitimate, what are the proper limits on government, and what distribution of wealth across society would be just. These issues will be pursued through contemporary and historical readings from Western political theory, including the work of Plato, Aristotle, John Locke, and recent thinkers like John Rawls and Robert Nozick. One unit.

Philosophy
267
Contemporary Political Philosophy
Annually

This course examines some contemporary problems facing liberal republican societies, like the United States. Both progressives, who favor government interference to solve social problems, and libertarians, who favor minimal government to ensure individual liberty, traditionally accepted that all individuals should be treated equally without reference to group-membership. This approach been questioned by minority groups and women who favor policies that take their traditional disadvantages into account, conservatives and religious advocates who want to preserve local community controls over behavior, and multiculturalists who assert the equality of cultures and “cultural rights.” What should the limits on individual liberty be? Does equal treatment mean ignoring difference, or recognizing difference and honoring it? Is there a conflict between the rights of individuals and the rights of groups? We will explore these questions through the work of important contemporary political philosophers. One unit.

Philosophy
269
Philosophy of Law
Alternate years

Examines the nature of law and the place of law in human society. Considers the history of rule by law and reflects upon its value. Theories of law and of the relation of law to morality are explored. The course draws upon case histories and jurisprudential readings. It is not an introduction to legal reasoning, but a probe of the philosophical issues that underlie such legal concepts as equality, freedom of speech, evidence, obligation, rights, punishment, and justice. One unit.

Philosophy
271
Philosophy of Science
Alternate years

An examination of the structure, function, value, and limits of science. Topics include the structure of scientific explanation, the role of experimentation, the nature of scientific progress, and the nature of scientific values. This course also investigates whether the activities of science are both rational and ethical. One unit.

Philosophy
273
Philosophy of Medicine
Alternate years

The philosophy of medicine includes the metaphysical, epistemological and methodological aspects of medical practice and medical research. This course explores some of the theoretical and conceptual issues that form the basis for medical knowledge and thus influence the practice of medicine. Topics include the nature of health and disease, normality and pathology, the assumptions and goals of medicine, changes in the theoretical structure of medicine over time, the nature of medical knowledge, and methods of reasoning in medical research and practice. One unit.

Philosophy
274
Philosophical Anthropology
Alternate years

Philosophical anthropology is the philosophical study of human nature or human being. Our approach will focus on a particular feature of human being: culture. We will explore the philosophy of cultural symbols and creation through a reading of 20th century philosophical and related writings, asking both "What is culture?" and "What does the recognition of our fundamentally cultural nature do to our conception of being human?" One unit.

Philosophy
275
Social Philosophy of Modernity
Alternate years

In this course in social philosophy, we critically examine the nature and direction of the “modern” world, that is, the unique form of life which evolved in Europe and North America in the last three centuries and is arguably spreading throughout the world (via “globablization”). Readings include classical social theorists, like Karl Marx, Max Weber, Sigmund Freud, as well as more recent discussions of “advanced,” “post-industrial”
or “postmodern” society. One unit.

Philosophy
277
Philosophical Perspectives on Women
Alternate years

Surveys the classic literature of Western philosophical views on women and the feminist response to it. Attention to feminism as a method of analysis as well as to representative issues whose philosophical significance has been identified by feminism, e.g. gender, friendship, dependence. One unit.

Philosophy
278
Philosophers on War and Peace
Alternate years

Explores some major philosophical issues concerning war and peace viewed through the classic writings of Kant, Clausewitz, William James, Tolstoy, Gandhi and contemporary authors. Emphasis is on the questions of the possibility of eliminating war, the morality of war both conventional and nuclear, and the moral problems involved in maintaining a policy of nuclear deterrence. One unit.

Philosophy
282
Philosophy of Religion
Alternate years

This course is divided into two parts, both of which confront concepts and names for God with experiences of evil. The first part studies the tradition of theodicy, with attention to Augustine, Boethius, Leibniz and contemporary liberation theology. The second part looks closely at the experience of extreme evil in genocide. Readings from P. Levi, E. Eiesel, E. Levinas, P. Celan and post-Holocaust “death of God” thinking. One unit.

Philosophy
284
Philosophical Foundations of Catholicism
Alternate years

This course will examine some of the philosophical foundations of Roman Catholicism and, more generally, of Christianity. We will consider the human capacity to know God, the nature of the triune God, and our response to God in Church and Sacraments. Special emphasis will be placed on the philosophical ideas that helped to shape the expression of foundational Christian doctrine. Readings will include selections from Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, St. Augustine, St. Anselm, St. Thomas Aquinas, and other Patrictic authors. One unit.

Philosophy
285
Philosophy of Mythology
Alternate years

Examines both philosophy’s ground in mythical thinking and the tension that arises between the two spheres. Themes vary from semester to semester and will generally include, in addition to compendiums of Indian or Greek mythology, such authors as Plato, Vico, Schelling, Hegel, and Goethe. One unit.

Philosophy
286
Classicism in Art and Thought
Alternate years

Enlightenment culture is supposed to have liberated itself from ancient world-views. That is how “modernity” is defined. But it still expresses itself in classical terms. What is the meaning of this? Why do we remain wedded to a way of picturing the world which we claim to have progressed beyond? There are lots of superficial explanations. This course searches for a deeper understanding of what “classicism” is all about, and goes on to explore its recurrent manifestations in Enlightenment art and thought. Themes include order and disorder, freedom and desire, harmony and dissonance, individuality and the whole, unity and disunity, tragedy and reconciliation, nature and reason, and how we picture of ourselves in relation to the broad structure of reality. One unit.

Philosophy
287
The Philosophy of Architecture
Alternate years

More than any other art, architecture shapes our environment and the way we live. This raises serious and difficult questions about what architecture is and does, about the status of architecture as art, about the truths (if any) which it expresses, about the relationship between architectural forms and the character of human life, and about what it means to dwell. Such questions lie at the intersection of art and philosophy. In addition to readings from traditional and contemporary literature in aesthetics and architectural theory, this course reflects on these issues by looking at and responding to architectural examples. It examines the philosophy of architecture by studying architecture philosophically. One unit.

Philosophy
288
Death
Alternate years

Explores the antinomy of reason that is occasioned by the phenomenon of death, i.e. do we or do we not fully “die” when we die?, and the transformative rather than theoretical: how can we ourselves most effectively prepare ourselves for the deaths we will one day encounter? The image of Socrates, who faces his own death with supreme courage, serves as a model for the “philosophical” relationship to death. The readings for this course vary, but typically include Heidegger’s Being and Time and Plato’s Phaedo. Texts from Eastern Philosophy also play a prominent role. One unit.

Philosophy
289
Ethical Issues in Death and Dying
Alternate years

The ethical problems involved in caring for the terminally ill are among the most controversial issues of our day. This course examines ethical, philosophical, and public policy dimensions of death and dying. Topics include the definition of death, truth-telling with dying patients, suicide, euthanasia, deciding to forgo lifesustaining treatment, decisions on behalf of children and incompetent adults, the debate about futile care, and public policy issues. One unit.

Advanced Courses
Philosophy
301
Moral Psychology
Alternate years

This course addresses the nature of moral agency and moral reasoning from an interdisciplinary perspective. It will try to develop a philosophically plausible and a psychologically realistic account of human beings who are capable of acting for moral reasons. At the center of the discussion is the following question: How is it possible to conceive of human beings to be motivated by something other than pure self-interest — as moral philosophers constantly assume — if we are also biological organisms, a product of evolution and a process of “survival of the fittest?” Particularly important for our purpose is the question of whether our ability to empathize or sympathize with other people leads to altruistic and moral motivations. Readings will include Aristotle, Hume, Smith, Kant, Schopenhauer, Batson, DeWaal and others. One unit.

Philosophy
303
Philosophy of Social Science
Alternate years

Is it possible to study and explain human actions and human affairs using the methods of the natural sciences? Or does the study of human beings require its own methodology because human beings have thoughts, a free will, and can behave rationally? This course tries to find an answer to these questions by studying the most prominent responses to the above query provided by philosophers, historians and social scientists. Readings include works by authors such as Weber, Geertz, Hempel, Collingwood, Davidson, Winch, Marx and Habermas. One unit.

Philosophy
304
Problems in Metaphysics
Alternate years

Contemporary metaphysics addresses questions about the nature of reality such as: What is time? What are we? Is consciousness a physical brain process, or something non-physical? This seminar will take up some of these questions, readings are both historical and contemporary. One unit.

Philosophy
305
Science, Values and Society
Alternate years

The seminar is a study of the development of the philosophy, history, and sociology of natural science, focusing on examination of the mutual influence of the natural sciences and human values. Its goal is to bring students to a deeper appreciation of the conceptual underpinnings of scientific knowledge and how values influence the way we understand the practice of science. Topics to be considered include: objectivity and subjectivity in fact and value; types of value in science; the nature and construction of scientific theories; science and public policy; and scientism, the overvaluing of science. Case studies will examine how science and values interact in particular areas of current concern and will be selected according to particular student interests. Topics may include such things as global warming, pollution control, bioterrorism, public health policy, and genetically modified foods, to give just a few examples. One unit.

Philosophy
306
Problems in Moral Philosophy
Alternate years

This seminar addresses the relationship between theories of the mind and corresponding political theories. Among the course reading are Plato’s Republic, where the association between the structure of the soul and the structure of different cities is explicit, and Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, where the study of the soul’s structure is functional to the analysis of happiness in the polis. The second part of the seminar addresses two modern paradigms: Hobbes’ Leviathan and Rousseau’s Second Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. Two radically different theories are discussed which address human nature, the possibility of happiness, and the power of emotions while distinguishing themselves from their ancient models. One unit.

Philosophy
307
Metaphysics and Natural Science
Alternate years

This is a course in naturalistic metaphysics which compares the speculative conceptions of philosophers to recent work in the natural sciences, particularly physics and biology. Readings of three 19th- and 20th-century “process” philosophers (e.g. Schelling, Peirce, Whitehead) who hoped to answer fundamental metaphysical questions from a naturalistic perspective will be. Coupled with scientists' expositions of relevant parts of physical cosmology, complex systems theory, and evolutionary biology. Our goal is to use the science to educate the philosophy, and the philosophy to educate the science, hence to understand the natural world through a dialogue between the two. One unit.

Philosophy
308
Problems in Epistemology
Alternate years

Prominent in contemporary theory of knowledge is the attack on “foundationalism,” the belief that claims to knowledge can receive ultimate or philosophical justification. Foundationalism has been central to the mainstream of philosophy since Descartes, although arguably it is as old as Plato. Thus “antifoundationalism” is a deep challenge to philosophy. This course examines the antifoundationalist critique, and the attempt to save philosophy from it, focusing primarily on the work of Richard Rorty, Michael Williams, and Hilary Putnam, but with selections from a number of earlier philosophers, including James, Nietzsche, Wittgenstein, Quine, and Heidegger. One unit.

Philosophy
309
Approaches to Medical Ethics
Alternate years

This course will examine the development and history of some of the most important approaches to medical ethics. It will examine three of the most important theoretical approaches: the principle-based common morality theory of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress; the libertarianism of H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.; and the virtue ethics of Edmund Pellegrino and David Thomasma. Many issues of contemporary concern in medical practice and research will be addressed in conjunction with the study of these theories. We will critique the contemporary practice of bioethics. One unit.

Philosophy
310
Concepts of Political Society
Alternate years

In this seminar we will ask a very basic question: what is the political? That is, what is the very nature of politics? Is it a tool for individual or communal self-interest, an amoral realm of power, or an activity of intrinsic moral value? What is the proper relationship of politics to economics, society, war, religion, and the private realm? We will read some of the key political and social theorists of Western history and recent times, including Aristotle, John Locke, L.T.Hobhouse, Carl Schmitt, Hanna Arendt, John Rawls, and Ernest Gellner. One unit.

Philosophy
316
Problems in Aesthetics
Alternate years

Selected issues or texts in the philosophy of art explored in depth. One unit.

Philosophy
332
Problems in Phenomenology
Alternate years

Selected issues or texts in the Phenomenological good is explored in depth. One unit.

Philosophy
335
Philosophical Naturalism
Alternate years

Philosophical naturalism holds that all reality is in or is continuous with physical nature, hence nothing is supernatural, purely non-physical or “ideal.” This also means the conclusions of natural science are directly relevant to the philosophical investigation of reality (that is, metaphysics). The historical problem for this view is to account for things that appear to be non-physical, like life, consciousness, knowledge, numbers, possibilities, God. This course encounters a variety of recent naturalisms to see whether they can handle these issues, reading John Dewey, W.V.O. Quine, Justus Buchler, Hans Jonas, and Hilary Putnam. One unit.

Philosophy
340
Albert Schweitzer – Reverence for life
Alternate years

In the course of the semester we will focus on an in-depth examination of Schweitzer’s ethics of reverence for life, as well as on its interconnectedness with the fields as diverse as art and politics. We will critically examine whether Schweitzer’s ethics of reverence for life, as well as his personal example, may serve as our moral guide in the twenty-first century. One unit.

Philosophy
350
Pre-Socratic Philosophy
Alternate years

A study of the origin of Western philosophy and science before Socrates. It investigates the relationship between myth and philosophy, the development of various schools of philosophy (Pythagoreans, Eleatics), and concludes with a discussion of the sophists. Emphasis is placed upon the study of the texts of Pre-Socratic philosophers and the interpretations of modern scholars. One unit.

Philosophy
354
Plato
Annually

“Platonism” has fallen on hard times in the contemporary philosophical marketplace. As a way of thinking about ethical, epistemological, or metaphysical issues, it is seen as an enterprise which is more or less bankrupt. The goal of this seminar is to overcome the modern prejudice against Platonism by rereading Plato, and understanding what he really has to say. Do his works represent a coherent philosophical vision? If so, what does this vision offer us? One unit.

Philosophy
358
Aristotle
Annually

“All human beings by nature desire to understand.” Or so Aristotle claims, in the first sentence of his Metaphysics. The goal of this seminar is to understand this claim. What is Aristotle’s conception of (our) “nature,” and how is it related to his conception of reality as a whole? Is our nature most fully realized when our desire (to understand) is most fully satisfied? If so, what does this involve? What does it mean to be fully human? What does Aristotle think we ultimately discover in our attempt to understand the world? We shall pursue these questions, in depth, by exploring the fundamental connections between — and the significant tensions within — Aristotle’s MetaphysicsPhysicsEthics and Poetics. Ultimate focus is on Aristotle’s conception of tragedy, and the philosophical implications of the work of two tragic poets (Sophocles and Euripides). Attention is also given to whatever seems to separate Aristotle’s way of thinking and our own. One unit.

Philosophy
360
Aristotle & Confucius
Alternate years

Chinese culture is the single stem from which most East Asian cultures branch and Master Kong is a taproot of these branches. Western cultures owe much to Greek and Latin civilizations that styled Aristotle the “master of those who know.” Each thinker’s prescription for life has influenced his traditions for millennia. Even in their rejection of the ancient masters, modern movements in both cultures have been shaped by their rejection, right down to their interpretation of the sciences and society. In this course, we undertake a close comparison of the ethics of Aristotle and Confucius, with attention to their views of the cosmos, the self, and human relationships. We compare the central ethical concepts of the two figures; ask to what extent these concepts and their associated practices are bound by the respective cultures; examine the most primitive assumptions of each author about human beings and our natural and social environments; and investigate to what extent each author’s ethics requires or would be aided by a theoretical “first philosophy.” Ultimately, we aim to see if these two figures can help each other, can reach out to each other across the miles and to us across the centuries. One unit.

Philosophy
360
Aristotle and Confucius
Alternate years

This course undertakes a close comparison of the ethics of Aristotle and Confucius, with attention to their views of the cosmos, the self, and human relationships. We compare the central ethical concepts of the two figures; ask to what extent these concepts and their associated practices are bound by the respective cultures; examine the most primitive assumptions of each author about human beings and our natural and social environments; and investigate to what extent each author’s ethics requires or would be aided by a theoretical “first philosophy.” One unit.

Philosophy
361
Confucian Values and Human Rights
Alternate years

Discourse about Confucian values, frequently known as "Asian Values," provided strong resistance to Western rights. Arguing that human rights are not universal because of their origin in the West, Asian nations urge that consideration be given to their cultural and historical situations which justify their own brand of human rights. Confucian values are being invoked by the Chinese government in political discussions with the U.S. This seminar focuses on primary texts by Confucius, Mencius and two other early Confucian texts, in order to understand the philosophical concepts which constitute Confucian values. We will survey some contemporary literatures on human rights to come to an understanding of the highly contested concept of human rights. Ultimately, we examine what values are Confucian, whether they are compatible with human rights, (especially the first- and second-generation rights), and if one of these is prior to the other for Confucianism. We ask if there are resources within Confucian values which can contribute to a better understanding of human rights. One unit.

Philosophy
361
Augustine
Alternate years

This seminar introduces the thought of Augustine through study of some main works in relation to key themes in Greek philosophy (chiefly Plotinus) and Christian theology. Augustine’s Confessions are generally read, but depending on the topical focus in a given year, this may be followed by study of his City of GodDe Trinitate, or passages from other works. One unit.

Philosophy
366
Thomas Aquinas
Alternate years

A detailed study of selected texts of St. Thomas Aquinas with reference to other significant medieval figures. The focus is on understanding St. Thomas’ thought both as an intellectual achievement in its own right and as part of a continuous tradition of philosophical and theological inquiry. Topics of special interest will include: the existence and nature of God, creation and the nature of reality, human and divine knowledge, as well as problems in ethics and politics. Late medieval Scholasticism involved a rediscovery of and sustained dialogue with Aristotelian thought. Thus, participants in this course benefit from a prior knowledge of ancient Greek philosophy, although it is not a prerequisite for enrollment. One unit.

Philosophy
368
Meister Eckhart
Alternate years

This course typically focuses on Eckhart’s sermons (which he composed in German) rather than the more formal philosophical treatises (which he wrote in Latin). It is in the sermons where Eckhart’s mysticism is most pronounced. As a result, they serve as an ideal basis for evaluating the relationship between philosophy and mysticism. In addition, the question is raised to what degree Eckhart’s thinking reveals the essence, not only of Christianity, but of religion as such. In this regard, Eckhart commentaries from Buddhist and Islamic thinkers may also be considered. One unit.

Philosophy
370
Kant
Alternate years

A reading course in the primary sources, concentrating mostly on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Judgment. The reading and discussion focus on Kant’s theory of knowledge, as well as his metaphysical, aesthetic, and anthropological views. The approach is both historical and critical. One unit.

Philosophy
375
Hegel
Alternate years

An in-depth study of the philosophy of Hegel. This includes a probing and testing of his positions on the nature of reality and his theory of knowledge. Emphasis is on the philosophy of history, the history of philosophy, the state, and religion, and on their contemporary relevance. One unit.

Philosophy
380
Nietzsche
Alternate years

Friedrich Nietzsche is one of the archetypal modern masters. His notions of the “death of God,” the “will to power,” amor fati, the Dionysian and Apollinian, the overman and many others have entered the consciousness of the 20th century. His influence was (and still is) immense. The seminar is an in-depth study of Nietzsche’s work. The discussion will be focused on the question of creation and negation, on nihilism and its overcoming, on the sense of morality and the criticism of Christianity. Nietzsche’s books used in class are: The Gay Science, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Beyond Good and Evil, Genealogy of Morals, Twilights of Idols, The Anti-Christ, and Ecce Homo. One unit.

Philosophy
383
Heidegger
Alternate years

This course consists of a reading and discussion of some of the major works of Heidegger. Attention is given to his criticism of Western philosophy, his understanding of truth, his teaching on the meaning of being human (Dasein), his pursuit of the question of the meaning of Being, and his critique of technology. One unit.

Philosophy
391
Wittgenstein
Alternate years

An intensive reading course focusing on Wittgenstein’s early Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and his late Philosophical Investigations. Topics of special interest include the author’s views on philosophy, the constitution of linguistic meaning, truth, and the problem of solipsism. The course also tries to evaluate Wittgenstein’s contribution to and relevance for contemporary philosophy. One unit.

Philosophy
400
Tutorials
Fall, spring

Independent study of various topics of special interest to individual students and faculty directors. Normally, tutorials will only be offered for topics that are not covered by regularly offered courses. One unit.

Philosophy
494, 495
Honors Thesis
Fall, spring

In their senior year, students admitted into the Philosophy Honors Program are required to enroll in two consecutive semesters of the honors tutorial in order to work on their honors thesis under the direction of their advisor. Two semester credits are granted at the end of the second semester. One unit each semester.