Modern Languages and Literatures

Claudia N. Ross, Ph.D., Professor and Chair

 

The courses offered by the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures provide a rich means for the intellectual and aesthetic development of Holy Cross students through the study of foreign languages, literatures, and cultures. Foreign languages lie at the very heart of the broader liberal arts curriculum and language study is a vehicle for the understanding of the cultural worldview of speakers of other languages. As such, it plays a key role in the multicultural or cross-cultural dimension of all majors and concentrations, and is an integral part of such concentrations as Asian Studies, Deaf Studies, German Studies, as well as Russian and Eastern European Studies. The department offers courses in Arabic, American Sign Language (ASL), Chinese, French, German, Italian, Russian, and foreign literatures in translation. Major programs are offered in Chinese, French, German, Italian, Russian and Studies in World Literatures (STLW). Minor programs are offered in Chinese, Deaf Studies, French, German, Italian, and Russian. Students have also used the department’s language and literature courses in the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies (CIS)-sponsored concentrations and student-designed multidisciplinary majors and minors. See the descriptions for each in the section of this Catalog titled Center for Interdisciplinary Studies.

Department advisors for majors and minors help students become aware of the College’s many academic opportunities and assist them with their individual curriculum. Classroom instruction in the languages is complemented by small-group practice with native foreign-language assistants and through the use of state-of-the-art facilities in the Multimedia Resource Center. Cocurricular activities are provided by language tables, language clubs, honor societies, film series, lectures and cultural outings.

The department also offers a major program in Studies in World Literatures. Courses are conducted in English and employ translated texts. The program is designed to introduce students to the most representative works of various national literatures while highlighting the commonalities and differences among these works. Courses instruct students in approaches to textual interpretation and criticism, as well as guide them toward an understanding of the cultural themes reflected in the respective works.

All students, and modern-language majors in particular, are encouraged to avail themselves of study abroad opportunities which strengthen language skills and cultural understanding. The College offers semester- or year-long programs in Cameroon, China, France, Germany, Italy, and Russia as well as summer programs.

All Holy Cross students must satisfy the College’s Common Area Requirement for language study. This requirement is satisfied by two consecutive levels of language study. Students who wish to satisfy this requirement by continuing the study of a language must begin their study at the level in which they are placed by the College’s placement procedures. A score of 4 or 5 in the Advanced Placement exam for a particular language satisfies one semester of this two-semester Common Area requirement provided the student continues the study in that language at Holy Cross for at least one additional semester. Students who wish to satisfy the requirement with a language which they have not previously studied can do so with two semesters of the elementary level of a language.

Advanced Placement Credit: Students with AP credit in a modern language or literature earn placement in the curriculum but not progress toward the minimum number of courses required by the major. Students who take a course that duplicates the AP award in a language will forfeit the AP credit. Students with AP credit in the literature of a modern language will not be permitted to enroll in a course below the 300 level.

Courses

Arabic Courses

Arabic
Arabic
101
Annually

This course, designed for students with no previous study of Arabic, introduces the students of the script system of Arabic language, ensures the acquisition of basic speaking, listening, reading and writing in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and an introduction to the Arab culture around the world. Five class hours weekly. One and one-quarter units.

Arabic
201
Annually

This course reviews and expands the fundamentals of the language through oral and written expression accompanied by readings and culture. Prerequisite:  ARAB 102 or equivalent.  Five class hours weekly. One and one-quarter units.

Arabic
ARAB 102
Annually

This course focuses on the basic linguistic and cultural fundamentals of Arabic in a communicative approach that allows the students to increase their linguistic abilities in reading, writing, listening and speaking in uncomplicated situations. Prerequisite: ARAB 101 or equivalent. Five class hours weekly.

Arabic
ARAB 202
Annually

This course presents more complex structures and embraces cultural competence by means of discussing TV shows and current newspapers. Prerequisite:  ARAB 201 or equivalent. Five class hours weekly.

American Sign Language and Deaf Studies Courses

American Sign Language and Deaf Studies

American Sign Language (ASL) is similar to spoken languages in that it has its own grammar and vocabulary, but it is different in that it is a visual language used by the Deaf community in the United States. Students pursing coursework in Deaf Studies have opportunities for involvement in a program that provides personal and direct interaction with members of the Deaf community using ASL as the primary means of communication. Students pursuing ASL and Deaf Studies can apply to study for one or two semesters at Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C, the world’s only Deaf university, where they can experience full immersion in ASL and Deaf culture. This option is available through Holy Cross’ Study Away Program administered through the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies (CIS). Students can elect a minor in Deaf Studies or through CIS, they can develop a multidisciplinary major combining Deaf Studies with other disciplines within the College. Multidisciplinary majors incorporating ASL and Deaf Studies curriculum have included themes such as Literacy in Deaf Education, Deaf Studies and the Arts, Social Issues in Deaf Education and Language Acquisition and (Deaf) Culture.

Deaf Studies Minor Requirements: 6 courses as follows:

• DFST 109: Introduction to Deaf Studies

• DFST 201: Intermediate ASL1

• DFST 202: Intermediate ASL2

• DFST 301: ASL Comp & Con

One course from among the following:

• DFST 300: The Deaf Community, Language and Culture,

• DFST 303: Deaf Literature

And one additional approved course with a focus on ASL or Deaf Studies taken at Holy Cross or at another institution

 

Deaf Studies
101
Fall

Designed for students with little or no knowledge of American Sign Language. This course introduces students to the fundamentals of American Sign Language, focuses on the acquisition of speaking and listening skills through a visual-gestural modality, and provides and overview of Deaf culture. Five class hours weekly, including two hours of practicum. One and one-quarter units.

Deaf Studies
102
Spring

Designed for students with little or no knowledge of American Sign Language. This course introduces students to the fundamentals of American Sign Language, focuses on the acquisition of speaking and listening skills through a visual-gestural modality, and provides an overview of Deaf culture. Five class hours weekly, including two hours of practicum. One and one-quarter units.

Deaf Studies
109
Fall

This course covers issues relating to deafness, deaf people and the Deaf community, focusing on the cultural and linguistic aspects of deafness rather than the medical condition. It explores such questions as whether deafness is something to be “fixed” or celebrated, and it considers alternative ways of looking at members of society who are “different” in some way. It considers policy making, and explores the way that the “hearing” community influences opinions, decisions, and policies that affect the Deaf community. This course is a requirement for students proposing a CIS Student-Designed major or minor which includes Deaf Studies as one of its disciplines. Taught in English. One unit.

Deaf Studies
201
Fall

This course reviews and expands on the fundamentals of ASL, continues the acquisition of speaking and listening skills through a visual-gestural modality, and develops conversational skills. Prerequisite: DFST 102 or the equivalent. Five class hours weekly, including one hour of Community-Based Learning participation and one hour of practicum. One and one-quarter units.

Deaf Studies
202
Spring

This course reviews and expands on the fundamentals of ASL, continues the acquisition of speaking and listening skills through a visual-gestural modality, and develops conversational skills.Prerequisite: DFST 102 or the equivalent. Five class hours weekly, including one hour of Community-Based Learning participation and one hour of practicum. One and one-quarter units.

Deaf Studies
299
Annually

A special topics course offered on alternate semesters and will include related areas in literature, linguistics, culture or visual communication. Topics vary with each offering. One unit.

Deaf Studies
300
Alternate years

Provides students with a positive perspective on Deaf people who use American Sign Language and their cultural identity. This course is based on a cultural perspective as an alternative to the pathological model and explores the historical evolution of the Deaf Community in terms of language, self-image, culture and arts. Taught in ASL. One unit.

Deaf Studies
301
Fall

Designed for students who wish to gain proficiency in ASL. This course offers intensive formal and informal practice in ASL through an exploration of video materials produced by ASL speakers. Students will utilize video materials as a basis for class discussion and composition. Grammar will be reviewed. Prerequisite: DFST 202 or the equivalent. Five class hours weekly, including two hours of Community-Based Learning participation. One unit.

Deaf Studies
303
Alternate years

This course examines how culture and language intersect in 20th-century ASL literature. It explores the origins of deaf literature, its relationship with written literature, especially its effect on the development of aesthetic expression of ASL literature. It considers works about deafness and works written by deaf authors and the various attitudes toward deafness revealed in these works. Emphasis is placed on historical background, meaning of the content discussion of grammatical features and styles revealed in the study of selected video materials. One unit.

Deaf Studies
350
Spring

Offers students a unique learning experience, a full immersion internship opportunity for the semester with concurrent weekly seminar. Students integrate the hands-on experience of their internship sites with related readings, classroom discussions and student presentations of specific topics. Students make a formal presentation. Students are involved with a unique collaborate “signed History” project. Using ASL as a means of communication, students conduct interviews with deaf individuals in the community. One unit.

Chinese Courses

Chinese

China, one of the world’s oldest civilizations, is increasingly important to United States national security, foreign relations, trade, and climate change policy. Chinese language is a valuable asset for careers in business, government, technology, education, law, and journalism.

Chinese major requirements: 10 courses on Chinese language, literature, culture, and civilization as follows:

• A minimum of six courses in Chinese language or Chinese literature in Chinese at the 200 level or above including at least two at the 400 level. Majors who study abroad in their junior year must complete two courses in Chinese literature at the 400 level or above in their senior year at Holy Cross.

• A minimum of four additional courses taught in English or Chinese, including:

• Chinese 103: Introduction to Chinese Culture

• One course on Chinese literature

• Two additional approved courses on China focusing on art, cinema, economics, history, linguistics, literature, politics, society, or religions

Chinese Minor Requirements: 6 courses as follows:

• Chinese 201: Intermediate Chinese 1

• Chinese 202: Intermediate Chinese 2

• Chinese 301: Third Year Chinese 1

• Chinese 302: Third Year Chinese 2

One course on Chinese culture or literature from among the following:

• Chinese 103: Introduction to Chinese Culture

• Chinese 255: Chinese Culture through the Camera’s Eye

• Chinese 199: Topics in Chinese Literature

One additional approved course on China in English or Chinese in anthropology, art, culture, economics, history, literature, linguistics, religion or politics

China track concentration (offered through the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies): History 103 or History 104 (Perspectives on Asia), or Anthropology 199 (Contemporary Asia), or an approved course with a broad focus on Asia, and five additional courses on China, including three semesters of Chinese language above Elementary Chinese and two non-language courses on China.

Chinese language and civilization major (offered by application through the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies): History 103 or History 104 (Perspectives on Asia), or Anthropology 199 (Contemporary Asia), or an approved course with a broad focus on Asia, four semesters of Chinese language above the elementary level, one course in Chinese history, and four additional non-language courses with a significant focus on China selected from at least two different disciplines.

Study Abroad: Students are encouraged to participate in the Holy Cross programs in Beijing, China for one or two semesters. Students may also elect a second semester in our Chinese language and internship program in Shanghai. Students may elect to study abroad for the fall, spring, or fall and spring semesters. Prerequisite: three semesters of Chinese.

Chinese
101, 102
Annually

An introduction to spoken Mandarin and written Chinese. Providing a foundation in speaking, listening, reading, writing, and communication skills and an introduction to the Chinese culture. One and one-quarter units each semester.

Chinese
103
Annually

An introduction to the history, geography, literature, and social issues of China through readings, films, music, poetry, and web-based resources. Taught in English. Three class hours weekly. One unit.

Chinese
199
Annually

Offerings in Chinese Literature One unit.

Chinese
201, 202
Annually

Continued focus on the development of oral and written communication skills and on the strengthening of cultural competency in Chinese through the use of written texts and multimedia resources. Five class hours weekly. One and one-quarter units each semester.

Chinese
255
Annually

An exploration of Chinese culture through 20th- and 21st-century Chinese cinema. Taught in English. One unit.

Chinese
301, 302
Annually

Continued focus on the development of oral and written communication skills and cultural competency through the use of readings and multimedia resources. Five class hours weekly. One and one-quarter units each semester.

Chinese
401, 402
Annually

Continued development of oral and written communication skills and cultural competency through the use of authentic material in spoken Mandarin and formal written Chinese from a variety of media. One unit each semester.

Chinese
409, 410
Every third year

An introduction to the classical literary language of China. One unit each semester.

French Courses

French

The French program is comprised of four levels that follow a logical progression, from elementary (FREN 101 and 102), to intermediate (FREN 201 and 202), to transitional (300-level courses) to advanced (400-level courses). The transitional level is comprised of a language component (FREN 301) and a preparatory methodology course designed to bring students’ proficiency to the level of accuracy and clarity required for the 400-level courses.

Prerequisites for each course dictate progression. Students who have reached a certain level may not register for a course at a lower level. Students may not take more than three 300-level courses beyond FREN 301 to prepare for the advanced level. Students who study in France or Cameroon may not take 300-level courses upon their return at Holy Cross.

French courses are numbered following a uniform system: the first digit of each number refers to the level of instruction: elementary (1), intermediate (2), transitional (3), and advanced (4). The second digit indicates the subject matter: language (0), survey (1), literature (2), French culture (3), Francophonie (4), Women Writers (5), African and Caribbean topics (6). The last digit indicates the number of courses that exist in a given subject matter. With regard to courses beyond FREN 301, the last digit does not indicate an increasing level of difficulty. For instance, FREN 304 is not more difficult than FREN 302. It is one of four preparatory methodology courses that exist at the transitional level. Both courses have the same prerequisite. Similarly, FREN 427 is not more difficult than FREN 421. It is one of seven courses in literature that exist at the advanced level. Both courses have the same prerequisite. Note that the digits “99” designate new courses, never offered before in the program. They are neither more advanced nor more difficult than any other course within the same level.

Majors and minors are encouraged to be well rounded in the discipline by taking a variety of advanced courses in literature, culture, film, and language.

Majors and minors are urged to seriously consider spending their third year at one of Holy Cross’ two sites in France at the Université de Bourgogne in Dijon or at the Université de Strasbourg, or at its site in Cameroon at the Université Catholique d’Afrique Centrale in Yaoundé.

French major requirements: a minimum of 10 courses at the intermediate level or above, including the following:

• French 301 (Composition and Conversation)

• At least two courses must be at the 400 level

• At least one 400-level course in literature

• At least two courses must be taken in the fourth year

Courses on French language, and/or Francophone literature, film, art, civilization, and history taken in French in Study Abroad programs count toward the major. Courses taken abroad will be transferred (bearing no 300 or 400 level designation) subject to the French section coordinator’s approval. Majors who study abroad will be required to take at least six courses at Holy Cross.

French minor requirements: a minimum of six courses at the intermediate level or above, including the following:

• French 301 (Composition and Conversation)

• At least one course must be at the 400 level

• At least one course must be taken in the fourth year

Courses on French language, and/or Francophone literature, film, art, civilization, and history taken in French in Study Abroad programs count toward the minor. Courses taken abroad will be transferred (bearing no 300 or 400 level designation) subject to the French section coordinator’s approval. Minors who study abroad will be required to take at least three courses at Holy Cross.

French
101
Elementary French 1
Fall

This first half of an introduction to the fundamentals of the French language focuses on the acquisition of the basic listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills and presents an introduction to the cultures of the French-speaking world. This course is restricted to students with no previous study of French. Five class hours weekly. Conducted in French. One and one-quarter units.

French
102
Elementary French 2
Fall, spring

This second half of an introduction to the fundamentals of the French language reinforces and deepens basic listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in French as well as knowledge of the cultures of the French-speaking world. Prerequisite: French 101 or the equivalent score on the placement test. Five class hours weekly. Conducted in French. One and one-quarter units.

French
201
Intermediate French 1
Fall, spring

The first half of a review of the fundamentals of French supplemented by reading of literary and cultural material and by practice in oral expression. Prerequisite: French 102 or the equivalent score on the placement test. Four class hours weekly. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
202
Intermediate French 2
Fall, spring

The second half of a review of the fundamentals of French supplemented by reading of literary and cultural material and by practice in oral expression. Prerequisite: French 201 or the equivalent score on the placement test. Four class hours weekly. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
301
Composition and Conversation
Fall, spring

Designed for gaining proficiency in oral and written French. Emphasis on developing correctness and fluency in everyday situations. Regular methods of instruction include discussions, Web activities, skits, listening comprehension, and grammar review. Required for French majors and recommended for first-year students with advanced placement. Prerequisite: French 202 or the equivalent score on the placement test. Four class hours weekly. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
302
Approaches to Reading and Writing
Every third year

Designed to give students the tools to read and write critically in French. Students will examine texts representative of major genres and will acquire lexical flexibility, rhetorical skills and stylistic proficiency. Prerequisite: French 301. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
303
French Life & Letters: Middle Ages to 1800
Every third year

An overview of French life and letters from the Middle Ages to 1800. Focus is on literature, but other types of material are included to provide insights into the cultural, historical, and ideological contexts. Designed to give students the tools to read and write critically in French. Students will examine texts representative of major genres and will acquire lexical flexibility, rhetorical skills and stylistic proficiency. Prerequisite: French 301. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
304
French Life & Letters: the 19th, 20th and 21st Centuries
Every third year

An overview of French life and letters from 1800 to the present. Focus is on literature, but other types of material are included to provide insights into the cultural, historical, and ideological contexts. Designed to give students the tools to read and write critically in French. Students will examine texts representative of major genres and will acquire lexical flexibility, rhetorical skills and stylistic proficiency. Prerequisite: French 301. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
305
Writing Around the Arts
Every third year

Arts will be the thematic focus of the course and will encompass readings on urbanism and architecture, film, advertising, comic books, choreography, equestrian theater, political songs, painting, and photography. Designed to give students the tools to read and write critically in French. Students will examine texts representative of major genres and will acquire lexical flexibility, rhetorical skills and stylistic proficiency. Prerequisite: French 301. Conducted in French. One unit

French
306
Paris Through The Looking Glass
Every third year

Paris will be the thematic focus of the course and will encompass a variety of readings on the City of Lights’ history, urban design and landscape, landmarks and symbols, cultural institutions, artistic and intellectual neighborhoods. We will also examine how poets, novelists, playwrights, and filmmakers have represented Paris by studying samples of their respective art form. Designed to give students the tools to read and write critically in French. Students will examine texts representative of major genres (poetry, theater, novel) and will acquire lexical flexibility, rhetorical skills and stylistic proficiency. Prerequisite: French 301. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
307
The Fantastic
Every third year

The general theme of the Fantastic is the focus of this course. As a literary and cinematic genre, the Fantastic is characterized by the intrusion of the supernatural into our “natural” world. This intrusion, which can take many forms, destabilizes both the reader/spectator and the characters within the text itself. Students will study a variety of works on the topic. Designed to give students the tools to read and write critically in French. Students will examine texts representative of major genres and will acquire lexical flexibility, rhetorical skills and stylistic proficiency. Prerequisite: French 301. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
341
Advanced Poetry Workshop
Annually

An advanced course in poetry writing. Only those who have completed the Creative Writing Concentration will
be considered. Permission of instructor required. One unit.

French
399
Special Topics
Annually

A thematic topic is the focus of the course. Designed to give students the tools to read and write critically in French. Students will examine texts representative of major genres and will acquire lexical flexibility, rhetorical skills and stylistic proficiency. Prerequisite: French 301. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
401
Advanced French
Every third year

Designed for students who seek to reach an advanced level of proficiency in French. The four skills are stressed. Particular emphasis on exercises that focus on complex language structures. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
402
Translation
Every third year

Through the translation of selected passages, seeks to teach students to write with precision and clarity in both French and English. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
404
Performing (in) French
Every third year

Aims to develop oral skills: pronunciation, effective public speaking strategies, and lyrical as well as dramatic
interpretation. Student performances consist of the recitation of literary texts. Prerequisite: A minimum of
two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
405
System & Style: The Dynamics of Language
Every third year

An examination of the different components and aspects constitutive of the French language through an analysis of its origins, phonetics, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and semantics as well as the network of rhetorical elements that combine to create a discourse. The study of language as a rigorously coded system that can assume a plurality of styles. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
413
French Poetry
Every third year

A critical study of French prosody and poetic practice with an analysis of poetical works drawn from Villon to the present. This course fulfills the literature requirement for the major. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
421
French Literature from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance
Every third year

A critical study of the major works and authors of the Middle Ages (including La Chanson de Roland, Chrétien de Troyes, Le Roman de Renart, La Farce de Maître Pathelin, Villon), and the major poets and prose writers of the Renaissance (including Rabelais, Du Bellay, Ronsard, Montaigne). This course fulfills the literature requirement for the major. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
425
From Realism to Impressionism and Symbolism
Every third year

By focusing on French literary and artistic developments of the second half of the 19th century, this course examines the paradoxical link between the attempt to express or represent reality and the emergence of a symbolist and even an abstract aesthetics. Works by Baudelaire, Bizet, Cézanne, Debussy, Degas, Flaubert, Jarry, Manet, Monet, Maupassant, Rimbaud, Rodin, Toulouse-Lautrec, Verlaine, and others are discussed. This course fulfills the literature requirement for the major. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
427
20th-21st Century Novel
Every third year

The major trends and theories by prominent 20th-21st Century novelists are considered. Selected works by authors such as Gide, Proust, Mauriac, Sartre, Colette, Camus, Breton, De Beauvoir, Beckett, Bernanos, Giono, Vian, Queneau, Perec, Pagnol, Tournier, Robbe-Grillet, Sarraute, Duras, Hyvrard, Modiano, Sollers, Lainé, Wittig, Roche, Yourcenar, Leduc, Ernaux, Angot, Germain and others. This course fulfills the literature requirement for the major. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
431
Contemporary France
Every third year

Focuses on current issues in contemporary France. Politics, society, the arts, domestic and international affairs, education, the media, feminism, etc., are among the topics analyzed and discussed. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
441
Francophone Cross-Culturalities & Creolizations
Every third year

A general introduction to the cultures outside France — in particular, those of America and Africa — that identify themselves as Francophone. Colonialism and post/neocolonialism, the creation of new cultural identities and expressions from ethnic diversity, linguistic “variants” and marginalizations are among the topics analyzed and discussed. Prerequisite: A minimum or two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
451
French Women Writers
Every third year

An examination of the works of major contemporary French women writers. Selected works by authors such as Colette, De Beauvoir, Yourcenar, Leduc, Duras, Delbo, Ernaux, Wittig, Hyvrard, Chawaf, François, Susini, Cixous, Sallenave, Redonnet, Lenoir, Angot, Bernheim, Germain, Detambel, Lê, Bouraoui and others. This course fulfills the literature requirement for the major. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
461
Writing Madness in Africa
Every third year

Depending on the society, madness raises psychological, sociological, philosophical and political issues at the same time. In the colonial context, the African, the native is perceived as the “other,” the primitive, whereas the native also looks at the occupant, the European, as the “other,” a strange being. In modern African writing, madness may be represented from the conflict between the world views that leads to such a cultural production. This course fulfills the literature requirement for the major. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
462
Detective Stories from Francophone Africa and the Caribbean
Every third year

Francophone African and Caribbean writers were inspired by the African American novelist, Chester Himes, a disciple of Dashiell Hammett. Therefore, this course necessarily starts with the history of detective story writing but also with Himes’s Harlem “domestic stories” as he called his thrillers. The course will then deal with the appropriation of detective story writing techniques by African American novelists and their African and Caribbean peers. This course fulfills the literature requirement for the major. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

French
463
Immigrant Writers from Francophone Africa and the Caribbean
Every third year

In the postcolonial era and especially since African and Caribbean countries’ independence in the 1960s, south-north immigration has increased dramatically. Such displacement has given birth to a new literature/culture that addresses migrations, identity formation and multicultural issues. This course will explore writings by men and women Francophone authors from Sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and the Maghreb, all of them inspired by life experience in France, in Canada or another foreign land. A few related films will also be viewed and discussed. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. One unit.

French
491, 492
Tutorial
Annually

Eligible students may elect one or both of these courses with the permission of the section coordinator. Tutorials are offered only to students who have previously taken all other advanced courses offered in a given semester. One unit.

French
499
Special Topics
Annually

A special course offered either semester for the study of a literary genre, form, theme or issue. Under this heading, courses in film are offered regularly. Prerequisite: A minimum of two French courses at the 300-level. Conducted in French. One unit.

German Courses

German

German major requirements: a minimum of 10 courses at the intermediate level and above. German majors are required to complete successfully German 301, 303, and 304 (or equivalent courses addressing German culture/literature of the 19th and of the 20th centuries, respectively). Majors are encouraged to enhance their knowledge of German thought and culture through allied courses in art, history, philosophy and political science. Majors who spent their third year abroad are required to take at least two courses at Holy Cross in their fourth year.

German minor requirements: a minimum of six courses at the intermediate level and above. German minors are required to complete successfully German 301 and German 303 or 304 (or an equivalent course addressing either the culture/literature of 19th- or 20th-century Germany). Minors who spend their third year abroad are required to take at least three courses at Holy Cross including one in their fourth year. German Studies major: offered through the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies (for details see CIS, Student-Designed Multidisciplinary Majors). The aim of the German Studies major is to develop an understanding of the cultural, social, and political life of the German-speaking peoples in their historical and international context.

Requirements:

• 2 courses in Intermediate German

• 1 course German Composition & Conversation

• 2 courses in German Culture/Literature

• 1 course on History

• 4 elective courses from German, History, Music, Philosophy, Political Science or Religion

• Approval of course selection by Coordinator of MLL’s German section and the Director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies

• Capstone project (if written in English, it needs to be accompanied by a brief abstract in German)

German
101, 102
Elementary German 1, 2
Annually

Designed for students with no previous study of German, aimed at the acquisition of a basic speaking, listening, reading and writing knowledge. Five class hours weekly, including two hours of practicum. One and one-quarter units each semester.

German
201, 202
Intermediate German 1, 2
Annually

A review of the fundamentals of the German language, supplemented by readings in literary and cultural texts as well as practice in oral and written expression. Prerequisite: German 102 or the equivalent. Five class hours weekly and laboratory practice. One and one quarter units each semester.

German
250
Metropolis Berlin
Every third year

The city of Berlin represents a microcosm of change and growth in European society yet maintains a unique identity. Its development from a royal city to the capital of a united Germany will be examined through the lenses of literature, film, art, and architecture. In English. One unit.

German
253
Nazi and Postwar German Cinema
Every third year

Films produced during the Third Reich played a crucial role in the mass culture of that regime. The course examines selected films made during that time as well as cinematic representations of the Hitler years during the postwar period to show how German film makers tried to come to terms with the Nazi past of their country. In English. One unit.

German
299
Special Topics in German Literature and Culture
Every third year

Intensive study of a special aspect of German literature such as themes, genres or movements. Topics announced in the preceding semester. Given in German or English according to staff decision. Recent topics: Brecht and the Political Theater, European Romanticism, Existentialism in German Literature. One unit each semester.

German
301
German Composition and Conversation
Fall

Designed for students wishing to acquire proficiency in spoken and written German. Discussions focus on current and historic events, address stylistic devices and rhetorical strategies in literary texts, and explore students’ interests. Weekly oral and written assignments with grammar review as necessary. Required for German majors and recommended for first-year students with advanced placement. Prerequisite: German 202 or the equivalent. In German. One unit.

German
303
German Culture: 1750-1890
Every third year

An introduction to outstanding examples of German thought, art, and cultural developments in the 18th and 19th centuries. Important German cultural figures such as Frederick the Great, Goethe, Beethoven, Nietzsche and Marx are discussed. Readings, lectures, and discussions in German. Prerequisite: German 202 or the equivalent. One unit.

German
304
German Culture: The 20th Century
Every third year

An introduction to political and cultural developments in Germany in the 20th century. Aspects of the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, East and West Germany, and the United Germany are studied. Readings, lectures, and discussions in German. Prerequisite: German 202 or the equivalent. One unit.

German
401
Goethe and Schiller
Every third year

Analysis of representative works of Lessing, Goethe, Schiller and their contemporaries within the context of the German Enlightenment and German Idealism and their major philosophical, aesthetic and moral concerns. Readings and discussions in German. Prerequisite: German 202 or the equivalent. One unit.

German
402
German Romanticism
Every third year

A study of selected Romantic writings against the background of related developments in the arts and in philosophy. Analysis of works by Tieck, Novalis, Brentano, Eichendorff, Hölderlin, E.T.A. Hoffmann and others. Readings and discussions in German. Prerequisite: German 202 or the equivalent. One unit.

German
403
19th-Century German Literature
Every third year

A study of German literature in the age of burgeoning industrialism and materialism, extending from the late romanticism through the era of realism. Works of representative authors such as Heine, Büchner, Grillparzer, Droste-Hülshoff, Stifter, Keller, Meyer and Fontane. Readings and discussions in German. Prerequisite: German 202 or the equivalent. One unit.

German
405
Kafka, Hesse, Mann and Their Contemporaries
Every third year

Introduction to the most significant masters of German prose in the first half of the 20th century. Works of representative writers such as Hauptmann, Schnitzler, Mann, Kafka, Hesse, Brecht. Readings and discussions in German. Prerequisite: German 202 or the equivalent. One unit.

German
406
Contemporary German Literature
Every third year

A study of German texts created around the turn-of-the-millenium in the newly unified Germany. l Prerequisite: German 202 or the equivalent. One unit.

German
491, 492
Third-Year Tutorial
Annually

Eligible third-year students may elect German 491, 492 with permission of department chair and instructor. Topics to be determined by instructor. Recent topics: Modern German Drama, East German Literature. One unit each semester.

German
493, 494
Fourth-Year Tutorial
Annually

Eligible fourth-year students concentrating in German may elect German 493, 494 with permission of department chair and instructor. Recent topics: Bertolt Brecht, The Literature of the Third Reich, East German Fiction, Thomas Mann, the “Wall” in East and West German Literature, Theodor Fontane. Topics to be determined by instructor. One unit each semester.

Italian Courses

Italian

Italian major requirements: the major consists of a minimum of 10 courses in Italian language, literature and culture beyond the elementary level and includes the following courses:

• Intermediate Italian (Italian 201, Italian 202) (2 semesters)

• Composition and Conversation (Italian 301)

• Dante (Italian 260)

• One course in Medieval and/or Renaissance literature

• One course in 19th- and/or 20th-century literature

The remainder of the courses taken to fulfill the major requirements may include any combination of the other courses offered by the Italian section such as literature, cinema, Special Topics, and tutorials (taken either during the third or fourth year of study). Students may also take a maximum of two courses in English. These courses may include Italian courses taught in translation or approved courses in related departments such as History, Music and Visual Arts.

Students who choose to major in Italian are strongly encouraged to study in Italy. Of the courses taken in Florence or Bologna, four courses may be applied to the major. Certain courses taken abroad may be accepted as the equivalent of the specific requirements listed above or as elective courses. Those students who spend their third year in Italy may declare the major during the first semester of their fourth year, however it is recommended that they declare earlier.

All students who major in Italian are required to take two courses in their fourth year. Students may not take courses in English in their fourth year without the consent of their major advisor.

Italian minor requirements: the minor consists of a minimum of 6 courses in Italian language, literature and culture beyond the elementary level and includes the following courses:

• Intermediate Italian (Italian 201, Italian 202) (2 semesters)

• Composition and Conversation (Italian 301)

The remainder of the courses taken to fulfill the minor requirements may include any combination of the other courses offered by the Italian section such as literature, cinema, Special Topics, and tutorials (taken either during the third or fourth year of study). Students may take a maximum of one course in English: an Italian course taught in translation or an approved course in related departments such as History, Music and Visual Arts.

Students who choose to minor in Italian are strongly encouraged to study in Italy. Of the courses taken in Florence or Bologna, two courses may be applied to the minor. Certain courses taken abroad may be accepted as the equivalent of the specific requirements listed above or as elective courses. Students who spend their third year in Italy may declare the minor during the first semester of their fourth year, however it is recommended that they declare earlier.

All students who minor in Italian are required to take one course in their fourth year. Students may not take a course in English in their fourth year without the consent of the Italian Coordinator. Students may also pursue a major or minor in Italian Studies (Student-Designed Multidisciplinary Major/Minor) through the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies (CIS).

Italian
101, 102
Elementary Italian 1, 2
Annually

Designed for students with little or no knowledge of Italian language, this course provides an overview of basic Italian grammar with an emphasis on oral and written communication, listening comprehension, and reading. Five class hours weekly. One and one-quarter units each semester.

Italian
201, 202
Intermediate Italian 1, 2
Annually

Provides a review of Italian grammar with an emphasis on oral and written communication. Students also read and discuss Italian literature and cultural material and view films. Four class hours weekly Prerequisite: Italian 102 or equivalent. One unit each semester.

Italian
242
Italian Cinema and Society
Every third year

An examination of Italian society through the medium of film. Social, cultural, and political issues such as the North/South question, political corruption, and immigration will be explored. Films by Pasolini, Salvatores, Rosi, Giordana, Moretti, Crialese, and Virzì will be viewed and discussed. Conducted in English. One unit.

Italian
260
Dante
Annually

Examines the life and work of Dante Alighieri with a focus on his masterpiece, La Divina Commedia. A portrait of the political, social, cultural, and religious climate in which Dante wrote will be provided. Conducted in English. One unit.

Italian
299, 399
Special Topics
Alternate years

A special course offered either semester for the study of a literary or cultural theme, movement or issue. One unit.

Italian
301
Italian Composition and Conversation
Fall

Offers students intensive oral and written practice in Italian language through an exploration of Italian culture. Authentic materials such as literary texts, newspaper and magazine articles, and video are utilized as a basis for class discussion and written compositions. Grammar is reviewed in context. Four class hours weekly. Prerequisite: Italian 202 or equivalent. One unit.

Italian
320
Survey of Modern Literature
Alternate years

Traces the principal literary movements of the Italian (and European) tradition from the 17th–20th centuries. Works by Marino,  Goldoni,  Manzoni,  Verga,  Pirandello, and  Calvino, among others, will be studied. Discussion of Italian history and literary genre provides a context for the readings. Conducted in Italian. Prerequisite: Italian 301 or equivalent. One unit.

Italian
323
Introduction to Contemporary Italy
Alternate years

Explores the history and the culture of Italy from Fascism to contemporary Italy, passing through the economic boom, the “Leaden Years,” and the Mafia. Along with historical and cultural information, students will read newspaper articles, letters, excerpts from novels and short stories from authors such as Calvino, Levi, and others. They will also view films by directors like Scola, De Sica, and Giordana. Conducted in Italian. Prerequisite: Italian 301 or equivalent. One unit.

Italian
325
Boccaccio’s Decameron
Annually

A study of selected Novellas from Giovanni Boccaccio’s masterpiece, The Decameron. Students will learn about the culture, literary tradition, and language of 14th-century Italy. In addition to reading and analyzing the most important of Boccaccio’s one hundred stories, they will explore themes, such as merchant culture, the condition of women, and the art of the practical joke, that recur throughout the work. Students will also view selected episodes from  Pasolini’s homonymous film. Conducted in Italian. Prerequisite: Italian 301 or equivalent. One unit.

Italian
411
Italian Renaissance Literature
Alternate years

Focuses on representative works of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries in the context of Renaissance culture and history. Selected works by Petrarch, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Leon Battista Alberti, Poliziano, and Castiglione will be studied. Conducted in Italian. Prerequisite: Italian 301 or equivalent. One unit.

Italian
415
Sicily through Literature and Film
Alternate years

Introduces students to the celebrated literature of Sicily, the land of mythology and the Mafia, and home to many of Italy’s most important writers. The course concentrates on modern Italian literature, tracing the evolution of Sicily’s culture from the Unification in 1861 to today. Students will read works by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, Giovanni Verga, Maria Messina, Luigi Pirandello, Leonardo Sciascia, and Andrea
Camilleri and see films based on their works. Conducted in Italian. Prerequisite: Italian 301 or equivalent. One unit.

Italian
420
The 20th-Century Novel and World War II
Every third year

A study of 20th-century Italian narrative that focuses on the experience of the war. Topics include Fascist policies, the partisan resistance, the Holocaust and Italian Jews. Authors studied include Ignazio Silone, Giorgio Bassani, Cesare Pavese, Natalia Ginzburg, Primo Levi, and Renata Viganó. Students will also view and discuss films adapted from several of the works in class. Conducted in Italian. Prerequisite: Italian 301 or equivalent. One unit.

Italian
453
Italian Women's Autobiography
Every third year

Focuses on 20th-century works of Italian women writers such as Sibilla Aleramo, Grazia Deledda, Anna Banti, and Dacia Maraini, among others. All of the works have autobiographical elements and show the development of the woman artist. Topics include the history of women in Italy, Italian feminism, the representation of women in Italian literature, and literary genre. Conducted in English. One unit.

Italian
491, 492
Third-Year Tutorial
Annually

Eligible third-year students may elect one or both of these courses, only with the permission of the department chair. For students who have previously taken all other advanced courses offered in a given semester. One unit.

Italian
493, 494
Fourth-Year Tutorial
Annually

Eligible fourth-year students may elect one or both of these courses only with the permission of the department chair. For students who have previously taken all other advanced courses offered in a given semester. One unit.

Russian Courses

Russian

From literature, art and film, to technology, politics, economics, and sports, Russia’s influence on the world has been significant. By far the world’s largest country boasting untold resources, Russia remains an intriguing land of potential. By unraveling the meaning of its art, history, and politics, students can better understand how Russia helps shape the contours of world culture. The Russian Major and Minor at Holy Cross aim to develop students’ speaking skills and also to ensure broad literacy in Russian history and culture. In addition to all levels of language study, the Russian Program offers a wide array of literature and culture courses in different centuries (early Russia, 19th century, 20th century, contemporary Russian), genres (drama, poetry, prose, film), and geographical focus (Kievan Rus, European Russia, Siberia). Students should take advantage of the variety of offerings to familiarize themselves with the many different aspects of Russian cultural history.

In the U.S., Russian is a “critical need” language. The National Security Language Initiative (NDLI) was launched in 2006 to dramatically increase the number of Americans learning critical need foreign languages such as Russian. At Holy Cross, students can attain advanced levels of speaking, reading and writing Russian during their undergraduate years. Courses are also available for native speakers. The Holy Cross Summer Program in Moscow runs from mid-June to mid-July at the Russian state University for the Humanities (RGGU). RGGU is a top-flight university located near the vibrant center of Moscow. The Moscow program offers students the opportunity to dramatically improve their Russian language skills while they immerse themselves in the everyday life, the arts and culture, and the history and political life of today’s Russia. The Moscow Program gives students one Holy Cross credit toward the Russian major or minor and allows them to advance a language level.

Russian major requirements: Russian majors take a minimum of 10 and a maximum of 14 courses at the intermediate level or above. Majors must successfully complete Russian 201, 202 (Intermediate Russian) and Russian 301 (Composition and Conversation) or their equivalent, although major are encouraged to continue language study throughout their college careers. Majors are also required to take a minimum of four literature and/or culture courses. Of these four courses, at least one must be selected from those conducted in Russian. It is recommended that majors take at least one course in each of the following categories: 1) historical period (19th Century Russian Literature, 20th and 21st Century Russian Literature, Russian Revolution and the Arts, Soviet Art & Literature, Writing Under Stalin); 2) genre (Russian Short Story, Russian Drama and the West, Fairytale: Russia and the World, Russian Cinema); 3) thematic (Madness in Russian Literature, Fire and Ice: Siberia in Fiction, Russian Tales of Desire). Students may count toward the major one of the regularly offered courses on Russia in the Political Science or History Departments. These latter courses may not be taken in lieu of literature and culture courses conducted in Russian for a summer term, semester, or academic year. Majors are strongly encouraged to study abroad in Russia for a summer term, semester, or academic year. Majors who study abroad are required to take at least two courses at Holy Cross in their fourth year.

Russian minor requirements: Russian minors take a minimum of six courses on the intermediate level or above. Minors are required to successfully complete Russian 201, 202 (Intermediate Russian) and Russian 301 (Composition and Conversation). Students select at least three additional courses in Russian language, literature, or culture. Students’ personal interests will dictate the distribution of these remaining courses. Students may count toward the major one of the regularly offered courses on Russia in the Political Science or History Departments. Minors who study abroad are required to take at least three courses at Holy Cross, including at least one in their fourth year.

Consult with Russian Program faculty on matters of placement and minor credit. Majors and minors who spend time in Russia on study programs may participate in academic and work internship programs offered by those programs for major and minor credit.

Russian
101, 102
Elementary Russian 1, 2
Annually

Promotes active communicative skills along with the basics of Russian grammar. By course end, read, write, understand, and speak Russian in a broad range of everyday situations. Various aspects of Russian culture and life are introduced through the medium of language. Five class hours weekly and language lab practice. One and one-quarter units each semester.

Russian
201, 202
Intermediate Russian 1, 2
Annually

Designed to activate students’ spoken Russian, a wide variety of in-class activities allow students to practice Russian needed for most everyday situations. Textbook and workbook are supplemented with audio and videotapes. Conducted in Russian. Prerequisite: Russian 102 or the equivalent. Five class hours weekly. One and one-quarter units each semester.

Russian
250
Madness in Russian Literature
Every third year

From current events in post-Soviet Russia to classic Russian literature, Madness is an ubiquitous element of the Russian experience. We will cover a broad range of works-from medieval to post-Soviet masterpiecesto investigate the evolution of madness in Russian culture. The protagonists of the novels, plays, and short stories we will explore range from holy fools to everyday madmen to chronically troubled spirits. The reading will include Griboedov’s The Trouble with Reason, Pushkin’s Queen of Spades, Gogol’s The Diary of a Madman, Dostoevsky’s The Idiot, Checkhov’s The Black Monk and Ward No 6, Kuzmin’s Venetian Madcaps, Nabokov’s The Defense, Bulgakov’s The Master and Mararita, and Pelvin’s Buddha’s Little Fingers. We will also examine manifestations of fictional insanity in film, opera, and the visual arts. One unit.

Russian
251
Russian Tales of Desire
Every third year

This course treats the representation of desire in great works of the Western literary tradition. We will examine the transformation of this great literary theme over the ages and in various literary genres. The readings will include Euripides’ Hyppolitus, Dante’s La Vita Nuova, The Don Juan stories of Tirso de Molina, Byron and Pushkin, Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina and Nabokov’s Lolita. Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
253
Fire and Ice: Siberia in Fiction
Every third year

A consideration of Siberia as a native land, an adopted land, and a land of exile. Students start with Siberian folktales and the study of such native traditions as shamanism. Next, the course examines Siberia through Chekhov, Dostoevsky, and Shalamov as a land of both freedom and imprisonment. Finally, students read Rasputin, Astafiev, and Shukshin, whose work is devoted to the preservation of Siberia as a natural world
and a culture. Narrative and documentary films complement the reading selections. Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
255, 256
Russian Short Story 1, 2
Every third year

This course offers an opportunity to get acquainted with the most outstanding Russian writers and to read their masterpieces in the genre of the short stories. The first semester begins in the 18th century with Karamzin and continues through Chekhov. The second semester starts with Chekhov and brings students up to the present. Authors include Pushkin, Turgenev, Gogol, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Gorky, Babel and Zoshchenko.
Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
257
Russian Drama and the West
Every third year

Read Shakespeare, Moliere, Goldoni, and Ibsen and analyze their influence on such Russian playwrights as Pushkin, Gogol, Chekhov, Blok, Evreinov, and others. Special attention will be paid to Stanislavky’s acting system — a Hollywood favorite — and Meyerhold’s experimentation on the Russian modern stage. Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
258
Russian Cinema
Every third year

This course examines the development of Russian cinema from its silent pre-revolutionary stage up to the Post-Soviet blockbusters. It focuses on the artistic and technical achievements of Russian filmmaking and their contribution to practical and theoretical aspects of western cinema. We will discuss the distinction between Russian cinema as an ideological tool of a totalitarian state, and western cinema as an entertainment
industry. Screenings will include a variety of cinematic genres and styles such as Eisenstein’s legendary The Battleship Potemkin (1925) and the Oscar-winning films Moscow Does not Believe in Tears (1979) and Burnt by the Sun (1994). Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
259
Fairy Tale: Russia and the World
Every third year

This course explores the ritual origins and subsequent uses and functions of the folk, literary, and contemporary fairytale. Its methods include anthropological, psychological, archetypal, structural, feminist, and spiritual readings of the world’s most important tales. The course is both theoretical and practical. It aims not only to help students understand the various functions and methods of treating fairytale, but also to give them the tools to work with the genre themselves. The course also discusses historical problems of the study and classification of the fairytale. The cross-cultural approach of the course is designed to familiarize students with non-Western tales that challenge their assumptions about cultural boundaries and question the notion of what it means to be civilized. Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
260
19th-Century Russian Literature
Every third year

This course considers the “Rabbles, Rebels, and Martyrs”of Russia’s Golden Age of literature. During the 19th century, the Emancipation of the serfs, the Great Reforms, revolutionary activity and continued westernization changed Russian society dramatically. Perhaps it was these attempts at liberalization that produced the great works of Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoevsky and Tolstoy. Read the classic works of Russia’s Golden Age: The Bronze Horseman, Hero of Our Time, The Overcoat, Crime and Punishment and Anna Karenina. Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
261
20th- and 21st-Century Russian Literature
Every third year

A survey of the major works, authors and movements of the 20th and 21st centuries. We will discuss the function of literature in the Russian society over the last one hundred years, from the modernist pre-revolutionary era to the present. We will focus on novels, short stories and poetry written during the Bolshevik Revolution and Civil War, Stalinism, the era of stagnation, and after the fall of communism. The reading will include such diverse writers as Checkhov, Blok, Zamyatin, Bulgakov, Nabokov, Akhmatova, Pastemak, Solzhenitsyn, Pelevin and others. Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
262
Russian Revolution and the Arts
Every third year

This course will focus on the artistic rebellion during the period from 1890 and 1930 against nineteenth-century realist canons in literature, music, and visual and performing arts. We will explore the wild experimentation of Russian modernist artists during this revolutionary era, which had a powerful impact on the artistic imagination worldwide. Reading will include plays, novels and poetry by Chekhov, Zamiatin, Majakovsky, Blok, Akhmatova, Bulgakov and others. We will analyze the innovative painting techniques of Kandinsky, Malevich, Chagall and the World of Art group, explore Stravinsky and Rakhmaninov’s compositions, consider innovations in acting and dancing techniques, and learn about Eisenstein’s montage that revolutionized western cinema. Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
263
Soviet Art and Literature
Every third year

In addition to pure propaganda, the Soviet doctrine of Socialist Realism also produced a rich tradition of art and literature that expressed the ideal of the “New Soviet Person.” While introducing students to the wealth of Socialist Realist art and ways to interpret its hidden meanings and messages, this course traces the evolution of the “positive hero” in Soviet literature and art. We consider the meaning of Socialist Realism as a way to practice and understand art. We also discuss the merits and the dangers inherent in the relationship between this kind of literature and Soviet society, one that allowed a nation on its knees to rebuild and modernize as well as one that silenced countless authors. Students are also asked to discern how, in satirical or subversive works, the tenets of Socialist Realism are subverted and their values questioned and why, in today’s Russia, there is a growing nostalgia (and market) for Socialist Realist art. Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
264
Writing Under Stalin
Every third year

This course examines major literary works of the Stalinist era as the artistic expression of the history of twentieth century art, its writers and poets, and their relationship to the Soviet dictator, Joseph Stalin. The course teaches students how to discern symbolic systems that encode the works, often as a form of protest. It also considers the ethical issues at the heart of the works that concern such resistance and it risks and the role that art plays in such discussions. This course presents the social, political and cultural history of the Stalin-era Soviet Union (1922-1953) through primary and secondary historical sources, literature, arts, film (documentary and interpretive), and music. It attempts to piece together the history of stalinism, while asking students to consider the moral complexities of the time and it relevance to Russia as well as to other modern day nations. Students grapple with multiple voices that compete to “own” the history of Stalin, including that of Stalin himself. Conducted in English. One unit.

Russian
299, 399, 499
Special Topics in Russian Literature
Annually

A special course offered either semester on a single author or theme which has included religious imagery, women in Russian literature, the poetry of Anna Akhmatova, the short works of Bulgakov and Gorky, and courses on Russian poetry and the short story. Conducted in English or Russian. One unit.

Russian
301
Russian Composition and Conversation 1
Fall

Continued development of oral and written language skills and cultural competency through the use of Russian short stories, poetry, popular songs and mass media. In addition to discussion of our reading, students will also have an opportunity to improve their pronunciation and intonation through mini performances. We will stage dramatic sketches based on the short stories read in class and will learn how to improve pronunciation using the basic acting technique. Prerequisite: Russian 202 or the equivalent. Three class hours weekly include writing laboratory with native speaker. One unit.

Russian
303
Advanced Studies in Russian Culture
Spring

An analysis of literary works and documentary material with the aim of probing Russian cultural traditions of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. All discussions, readings and course work in Russian. One unit.

Russian
391, 392
Advanced Russian Tutorial
Annually

This is a mixed-level course appropriate for students with advanced Russian language abilities from coursework, study abroad or native heritage. The course approaches a chosen theme from various media and focuses on both oral and written literacy. Student interest determines the theme(s) of study and the course is then titled accordingly. This course may be taken more than once. One unit each semester.

World Literature Courses

Studies in World Literatures

Studies in World Literatures courses are conducted in English and use translations in English of literary texts originally written in another language. Most have no prerequisites and are open to all students.

Faculty members are from the Department of Modern Languages & Literatures. The courses carry diverse Common Area designations (e.g., Arts, Literature, Cross-Cultural Studies) and many also fulfill requirements for various interdisciplinary concentrations and multidisciplinary majors and minors (e.g., Africana Studies, Asian Studies, German Studies, Medieval-Renaissance Studies, Russian and Eastern European Studies, Women’s Studies).

Those courses carrying a course number specifically designated as STWL consist of a comparative study of texts from several cultural and/or linguistic communities. Those courses carrying a course number designating a specific language group — for example, CHIN, FREN, GERM, ITAL, RUSS, etc. — consist of a study of texts from a specific national tradition.

Major Requirements

To satisfy the requirement of the Studies in World Literatures major, students take a minimum of 10 and a maximum of 14 approved courses within the program. Because the STWL major emphasizes the points of connection among two or more traditions, students should select courses from a variety of programs and departments.

• One STWL designated course in literary or film studies. Students are encouraged to take this course as soon as possible after declaring the major.

• Five approved courses on the intermediate or advanced levels distributed as follows: two courses in the category of survey/theme; two courses in the category of genre/author; one course on the theory or philosophy of literature.

• Three approved electives in their area of interest.

• Students must also complete a capstone project in the form of an expository paper that is comparative in nature, focusing on either literature or film.

Up to two literature or film courses from a non-MLL Holy Cross department or an approved study abroad program may be counted toward the STWL major.

Major proposal

Upon declaration of the major, students will be required to submit the following:

• A list of proposed courses;

• A written explanation of their course choices and the subfocus of their major. At this point, depending on the focus and course work, students will be assigned an STWL faculty advisor.

Capstone proposal

Before beginning course work on the capstone project (no later than spring of a student’s junior year), students will be required to submit a written statement that describes the capstone project, identifies advisors and readers and outlines a timeline for the completion of the project.

For a complete list of courses that count toward the STWL major please see website: http://academics. holycross.edu/stwl/courses.

Studies in World Literatures
221
Coming-of-Age: Writing Women in the 20th Century
Annually

The course will trace the historical conditions of women’s education in the Western traditions with reference to women’s ‘historical silence’ or ‘mouthpiece function’. Women’s writing will be read as an escape from, answer to, repudiation of a gender discourse favoring men’s determination of self and society. Readings and discussions will focus on women’s desire for knowledge as well as women’s articulation of desire — the desire to be different without having to adapt to standards not set by themselves. The goal of self-determination will be differentiated with regard to both equal rights and equal responsibilities. Finally, the course will address women’s conceptualization of history, literature, and language of their own. One unit.

Studies in World Literatures
235
Introduction to Postcolonial Discourses
Annually

Contacts between Europe and the rest of the world, between colonizers and colonized people engendered profound social, cultural, economical, political and psychological transformations. A comparative examination and discussion of major ideas put forward by intellectuals who adapt a “Third World” perspective: Said, Fanon, Achebe, Ngugi, Spivak, Brathwaite, Babha and many others. One unit.

Studies in World Literatures
241
Francophone Cross-Culturalities & Creolizations
Every third year

A general introduction to the emergence of diverse francophone cultures in the world. The main focus is on North American, Caribbean, North African, and sub-Saharan cross-cultural encounters and creolizations. Topics considered include: colonialism, post colonialism, neocolonialism, diglossia, majority/minority conflicts, and the interplay of Western and indigenous traditions in the development or invention of “new” cultures. Authors to be read are: Chopin, Djebar, Fanon, Kerouac, Ousmane, Roy, Vallières, and Zobel. Films include: Black Robe, Chocolat, Battle of Algiers. One unit.

Studies in World Literatures
251
Tales of Desire
Every third year

This course treats the representation of desire in great works of the Western literary tradition. We will examine the transformation of this great literary theme over the ages and in various literary genres. The readings will include Euripides’ Hyppolitus, Dante’s La Vita Nuova, The Don Juan stories of Tirso de Molina, Byron and Pushkin, Flaubert’s Madame Bovary,Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina and Nabokov’s Lolita. One unit.

Studies in World Literatures
257
Russian Drama and the West
Every third year

This course reads Shakespeare, Moliere, Goldoni, and Ibsen and analyzes their influence on such Russian playwrights as Pushkin, Gogol, Chekhov, Blok, Evreinov, and others. Special attention will be paid to Stanislavky’s acting system — a Hollywood favorite — and Meyerhold’s experimentation on the Russian modern stage. One unit.

Studies in World Literatures
261
Exile and Cultural Production in Africa and the Caribbean
Annually

Exile is a universal phenomenon. It is generally understood as voluntary or forced expatriation, displacement. Exile may also be understood as inadequacy and irrelevance to function in specific world as compared to the “exile” of Prospero to Caliban island. They represent two extreme categories on the social spectrum: that of the natural ruler, and the naturally ruled. Explores “Caliban’s” inadequacy to adjust to his own postcolonial society after a long sojourn in the Prospero’s world. Most exiles end up writing books or producing films to “translate” their experiences. This course studies books and a few films produced by exile African and Caribbean artists. One unit.

Studies in World Literatures
265
Existentialism in Literature
Every third year

Studies Existentialism primarily as it is expressed in literary texts, but consideration is also given to its philosophical roots and evolution in Western Culture. Among authors read are Pascal, Kierkegaard, Dostoevsky, Unamuno, Gide, Mann, Kafka, Sartre, Camus, Updike, and Flannery O’Connor. One unit.

Studies in World Literatures
267
(Post) Colonial Writing: African and the Caribbean Experience
Alternate years

Read texts, watch films and discuss the vision proposed by artists from areas that entered modernity through imperialism. Problems such as dependency and appropriation of the other’s language and culture are addressed. Important concepts such as Negritude (Senghor, Cesaire); African Personality (Soyinka); Creoleness (Chamoiseau, Confiant); colonial education; violence, nationalism and resistance; postcolonial culture, modernity and identity are discussed. One unit.

Studies in World Literatures
299
Special Topics
Annually

Offered for the study of a particular literary genre, form, theme, etc. Topics announced in the preceding semester. One unit.

Studies in World Literatures
491
Fourth-Year Capstone Project
Annually

The Fourth-Year Capstone Project is an individual research project involving the study of at least two distinct textual traditions. For example, a comparative study of African, Asian, Caribbean, or European (French, German, Italian, Russian, etc.) literatures and cultures is acceptable. The capstone is directed by one principal faculty advisor, but must include consultation with at least one additional STWL faculty member. One unit.