History

Mary A. Conley, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Chair

 

The Department of History offers a wide range of courses dealing with most of the world’s major civilizations. Historians utilize a variety of theoretical approaches, research methods and sources to study the process of change over time and examine all aspects of human experience in the past. History intersects with, and draws upon, other disciplines including sociology, anthropology, political science, economics, arts and literature. Students considering a history major are encouraged to pursue the study of a foreign language beyond the intermediate level and to study away for one or two semesters.

The History department offers the courses summarized below. (More detailed descriptions are available online and can be accessed from the department’s home page.)

100-level introductory surveys and topical courses are suitable for majors and non-majors. Survey courses offer students a broad overview of a continent, region, country, or people over several generations. Through lectures, discussions, reading, and writing, students learn to consider continuity and change over time by assessing and interpreting evidence. Whereas survey courses adopt a panoramic perspective, topical courses — labeled “Historical Themes” and some Montserrat courses — zoom in for a closer view. Instead of a single large textbook, students might read parts of several monographs and sources from the actual time period. Short writing assignments are augmented by considerable oral work, with discussions generally predominating over lectures.

200-level intermediate courses are suitable for majors and in many, but not all cases, non-majors. They place greater emphasis on concepts such as colonialism, nationalism, feminism, and post-modernism, or on the role of ideology, gender, race, ethnicity and class in history. They may also incorporate approaches that are more global, transnational, and comparative. Readings emphasize monographs, journal articles and primary sources. Some lectures, discussions, student-led oral presentations and debates consider questions of historical interpretation, theory and methodology. Writing assignments are fewer in number but of greater length and complexity than those at the introductory level.

300 and 400-level advanced courses are open to third- and fourth-year history majors who have taken The Historian’s Craft (HIST 200). Non-majors with appropriate background may also enroll with the permission of the instructor. Admission to all 400-level courses is by permission only. 300-level courses delve deeply into a topic or area of history that students may have encountered previously in an introductory or intermediate course. Enrollment is limited to 16 students, in order to facilitate student engagement with the topic and active participation in class discussions, group research projects, and presentations of their research. Students have more opportunity for independence and initiative in shaping their papers and projects, including both historiographical papers and longer research papers that may employ primary sources. Courses at the 400 level include seminars (limited to 12 students), tutorials, and thesis preparation. Students are expected to produce a substantial paper as a final project and some form of oral presentation of the project at the end of the term. Success in 400-level courses relies on the student’s ability to take initiative in the research process by consulting regularly and meeting with the professor or thesis advisor, through compilation of a bibliography, and being fully active in discussions and debates.

Requirements for the Major

Majors must take a minimum of 10 courses and may take a maximum of 14 courses. Advanced Placement credits do not count toward that total.

First-year students interested in majoring in History are encouraged to take Montserrat courses taught by members of the department. A sequence of two such Montserrat courses counts as one course toward the History major. First-year students are also encouraged to enroll in 100-level History courses. Students should take at least one college-level history course prior to enrolling in HIST 200, The Historian’s Craft, which is ordinarily taken in the second year.

History majors must complete the following requirements:

• At least five courses for the major must be numbered 201 or higher, including two courses numbered 300 or higher.

• All majors are required to take The Historian’s Craft (HIST 200.) This course is normally taken in the sophomore year, after the student has completed at least one college-level history course; no seniors will be admitted to it. Historian’s Craft is a prerequisite for all advanced courses at the 300 or 400 level. Non-majors without Historian’s Craft must receive permission from the instructor to enroll in advanced courses.

• All majors must take at least two Pre-Industrial/Pre-Modern courses. (A list of Pre-Industrial/ Pre-Modern courses is available online and can be accessed from the department’s home page; copies are also available in the Department office.)

• Thematic Concentration: All majors must select one of the following six themes as a field of concentration within the major: Colonialism and Empire; Gender in Public and Private Life; Race and Ethnicity; Religion and Society; Resistance, Revolution and Reaction; War and Memory. With the assistance of a faculty advisor in the department, each student submits a rationale and a course plan during the fall semester of the junior year. The course plan must include four courses that can be clustered within the chosen theme. One of these four courses may be at the 100 level; one of these four must be at the 300 or 400 level. The theme must incorporate more than one geographic area. The Historian’s Craft course cannot be included in one’s thematic concentration. (A list of courses that address each of these themes is available online and can be accessed from the department’s home page; copies are also available in the Department office.)

• All majors must complete a Capstone Project. This project must be completed during the senior year, in the student’s Thematic Concentration, within a 300- or 400- level course. The Capstone Project is a summative research project of significant length. The specific nature of the Capstone Project is at the discretion of the instructor of the course.

• Fourth-year majors will not be admitted to 100-level courses, except with special permission from the Department Chair.

• Transfer students and students who study away may receive credit toward the major for up to four history courses if they are away for a year or up to two history courses if they are away for a semester. Courses taken elsewhere must be approved by the History department for credit toward the major.

Advanced Placement Credit: As described above, students with AP credit in history earn placement in the history curriculum but AP credit does not count toward the number of courses required for the major. Students in the Class of 2018 with Advanced Placement scores of 4 or 5 in History may qualify to enroll in 200-level courses during their first year.

The Department of History offers the opportunity for fourth-year students to be nominated for the History Honors Program. Students aspiring to graduate with Honors in History are required to take a minimum of two advanced courses (at the 300 or 400 level) — one of which must be a 400-level seminar — and, in addition, to work closely with a member of the history faculty on a research thesis during their senior year. The program offers the intellectual rewards of independent research and original writing, and provides recognition for outstanding achievement by students in the major.

Courses

History Courses

History
101
Historical Themes
Fall, spring

An introduction to history as a mode of intellectual inquiry, this is an intensive reading, writing, and discussion course which is limited to 16 students. Seeks to develop a critical awareness of history through an in-depth study of selected topics and themes. Emphasis is on student participation and the development of critical thinking. Readings involve some textual analysis and there are frequent short papers. Enrollment preference is given to first-year students. Only one Themes course may be applied toward the minimum of 10 courses needed for the major. One unit.

History
103
Perspectives on Asia I: “Traditional” East Asia
Fall

Introduces the major philosophical, political, social, religious and artistic traditions that developed in Asia prior to the 20th century; examines the historical contexts in which those traditions evolved, and considers their legacy for the modern era. Students are also introduced to the historical discipline itself: the concepts, methods, and tools that historians use to study the past. Various works in translation (fiction, philosophical and religious tracts, chronicles) are used, together with films, slides, field trips, guest lectures and discussions. One unit.

History
104
Perspectives on Asia II : Modern Transformations
Spring

Focuses on historical and cultural movements in the Asian region. Themes vary according to the interests and expertise of the Asian Studies faculty. Creative literature, anthropological accounts, journalists’ reports, films and guest lecturers will be used to gain a multi-layered perspective of these complex societies. One unit.

History
106
Origins of Japanese Culture
Alternate years

Surveys the development of Japanese social and political institutions, religion, art, and literature from prehistory to A.D. 1600. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between cultural and political change. Students also learn how archeological discoveries, painting, sculpture, poetry, fiction, and performing arts are used to study history. One unit.

History
109
The Ancient Near East and Greece
Every third year, spring

Beginning with an examination of prehistoric humans in Africa and Europe, we will study the ancient civilizations of Sumeria and Egypt, Assyria, Israel, and the Persians, then turn to Greek history. Political systems, social and economic organization, and cultural achievements will be discussed in lectures and covered in readings. Please note that this is an introductory survey; we will cover vast time periods and geographic areas, and stress the analysis of evidence by which we know the past. Emphasis is also given to discoveries of the ancient world during the past two centuries. One unit.

History
110
Rome: Republic and Empire
Every third year, fall

Provides an introduction to major themes in Roman history, from its foundation and relations with other Mediterranean powers, the development of the Republic, the evolution of Empire, to changes brought by Christianity. Political, legal, social and cultural themes are pursued, with emphasis on the primary historical and physical sources of knowledge. One unit.

History
111
The Rise of the Christian West to A.D. 1000
Fall

Western history from the later Roman period to the formation of Europe in the 11th century. Covers political, religious, economic, social, artistic and legal developments in the fusion of Roman and Christian civilization, the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire in the face of barbarian invasions, relations with the Byzantine Eastern Empire, the impact of Islam, rural and urban life, the Carolingian revival, and the impact of new peoples on the European scene. One unit.

History
112
Emerging Europe, 1000-1500
Spring

The emergence of Europe in the 11th century to the era of the Renaissance. Covers political, religious, economic, social, artistic and legal developments in the formation of European states and territorial monarchy, European frontier expansion, urban growth, the evolution of Romanesque and Gothic styles, and the conflict of church and state. One unit.

History
113
Renaissance to Napoleon, 1500-1815
Annually

Social, cultural, religious, economic, and political developments in Europe from the Renaissance to the fall of Napoleon. Special emphasis on the Protestant and Catholic Reformations, the evolution of monarchical power, the rise of European overseas empires, the Scientific Revolution, secularization and the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the rise and fall of Napoleon Bonaparte. One unit.

History
114
Napoleon to the European Union, 1815-Present
Annually

This course covers the major events of modern European history from the French Revolution to the collapse of Communism, paying particular attention to the issues that have troubled the region throughout the modern era, many of which remain unresolved today. These include conflicts of values, most especially between religious and secular world views; debates about social, economic, racial, and national inequality; changes in the roles of women, men, marriage and family in modern society; the experience of total war and its impact on individuals and nations; the disquieting phenomenon of popular dictatorship; the ethics of collaboration and resistance in WWII; and the consequences and legacies of superpower struggle in Europe. One unit.

History
124
Religion and Society in American History
Alternate years, spring

This survey of religious belief and practice in American history introduces students to the development of religious institutions, communities, and theological traditions. Students examine the ways religious belief and practice have shaped and been shaped by the major social, economic, and political forces of American history. Through lecture, debate, and discussion, students explore the broad range of religious expressions, casting an analytical eye toward the religious conflicts of the post-9/11 world. One unit.

History
126
Colonial Latin America
Fall

Provides an introduction to Latin American history from the pre-Columbian period to the late 18th century, emphasizing native cultures, the conquest of the New World, the creation of colonial societies in the Americas, race, gender and class relations, the functioning of the imperial system, the formation of peasant communities, and the wars of independence. One unit.

History
127
Modern Latin America
Spring

Surveys the history of 19th- and 20th-century Latin America, focusing on six countries. Topics include the formation of nation-states, the role of the military, the challenges of development and modernization, the Catholic Church and liberation theology, social and political movements for reform or revolution, slavery, race relations, the social history of workers and peasants, and inter-American relations. One unit.

History
128
Latino History
Alternate years, fall

Introduces students to the emerging field of United States Latino history. While the course emphasizes the intersection of U.S. and Latin American national histories, the migration process, and the formation of communities within the United States, it also examines the experience of Latinos in the U.S. through interdisciplinary themes that include ethnicity, poverty and social mobility, identity, popular culture, and politics — all in historical perspective. Readings stress the experiences of people from Puerto Rico, Mexico, U.S. Southwest, Dominican Republic, Cuba, and Central America. One unit.

History
137
American Slavery, American Freedom
Annually

Examines the intertwined origins and development of American slavery and American freedom, racial ideology and democracy, and the combustible interaction that created the central contradiction of antebellum America: a republican nation professing equality that was also an enormous slave holding society. Also examines the ways in which historians work and make arguments, and students will be asked to critically examine both primary and secondary documents. One unit.

History
196
African Colonial Lives
Spring

This course analyzes the colonial experience of African people in sub-Saharan Africa, from the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century. European colonialism in Africa transformed customs, traditions, and social organizations, introduced new boundaries between peoples and erased others through the institutionalization of racism and the creation of new ethnicities. The history, theory, and practice of colonialism (and neocolonialism) are presented in this course through historical documents, scholarly writing, literature, and film. The course explores the long-term economic, psychological, and cultural effects and legacies of colonialism on the colonized. Finally, we examine the episodes and events invoked by anti-colonialism and nationalism as colonized peoples resisted colonial domination. Fundamental to all these debates are concerns with the gendered and racist ideology of colonization — themes that also echo in the anti-colonial rebellions and liberation movements in Africa. One unit.

History
197
Early Africa to 1870
Spring

African women and men living as farmers, traders, hunters, artists, slaves, and rulers, have long been at the center — not the margins — of global change. From the emergence of agriculture and iron-making, to migration, the rise and fall of states, slave trades, and religious conversion, Africans actively engaged new ideas and practices spreading across the continent and a wider world. This course examines these core themes of adaptation, mobility, and exchange across all the regions of the continent including ancient Egypt, the West African interior, the Swahili coast, the Congo River, and southern Africa, providing a means to analyze critically the images that we have of nations in these parts of Africa today. Because we will use a range of materials including travel accounts, biography, film, missionary documents, and novels, we also will pay attention to the ways that sources affect our understanding of Africa’s past. One unit.

History
198
Modern Africa Since 1800
Fall

A survey of Africa’s complex colonial past, examining dominant ideas about colonial Africa and Africans’ experiences during colonialism, including: important historical debates on Africa’s colonial past and the legacy of colonialism; pre-colonial Africa’s place in the global world; resistance and response to the imposition and entrenchment of colonialism; and the nature of colonial rule as revealed in economic (under) development, ethnicity and conflict, and the environment. One unit.

History
200
The Historian’s Craft
Fall, spring

This course is conducted as a workshop that combines self-conscious reflection about how history is researched, written and interpreted with practice using the skills necessary for historical investigation. It focuses on three overlapping areas: (1) mechanics (reading critically, taking notes, speaking and writing effectively, paraphrasing and using quotations, citing sources); (2) methodology (formulating research questions, locating and using primary and secondary sources, organizing and presenting one’s research); (3) historiography (tracing the evolution of the discipline and differing schools of interpretation, using argumentation, evaluating competing interpretations). Students are also exposed to the six thematic concentrations that are offered within the history major. Required of all history majors. One unit.

History
201
Colonial America
Alternate years, fall

The exploration, settlement, and development of North America from the late-16th to the mid-l8th centuries. Special emphasis: comparative analysis of the backgrounds, goals, and accomplishments of the original colonists; social structure, economic development, and religious life; immigration and white servitude; slavery; Indian-white relations; and development of the British imperial system. One unit.

History
203
The Age of Jackson, 1815-1860
Fall

American life and politics between the time of the Founding Fathers and the Civil War. Emphasizes Jackson’s role as a national hero and political leader; constitutional issues; political and economic developments; continental expansion; antebellum literature, social life, and reform; and the breakup of the Jacksonian consensus as a prelude to the Civil War. One unit.

History
204
Lincoln and His Legacy: The Civil War and Its Aftermath
Spring

American life and politics from the Civil War to the end of Reconstruction. Emphasizes Lincoln’s leadership and vision, the proximate causes and military progress of the Civil War, “Reconstruction” of the former Confederate states, and the evolution of the 14th and 15th Amendments as protectors of civil rights. One unit.

History
205
U.S. in the 20th Century I: 1890-1945
Fall

Examines the major political, economic, social and cultural forces that contributed to the modernizing of America. Special emphasis on: industrialization and Empire; the impact of racial, gender, class and ethnic struggles for justice within a democratic republic; “Americanism”; the expanding role of the government in the lives of its citizens; labor and capitalism; popular and consumer culture; war and home front. One unit.

History
206
U.S. in the 20th Century II : 1945-Present
Spring

Examines the major political, economic, social and cultural forces of the post-WWII era. Special topics include: reorganizing the post-war world; McCarthyism; consumer and youth culture; the Civil Rights Movement; the New Left and the Vietnam War; the women’s movements; Watergate and the resurgent Right; and post-Cold War America. One unit.

History
208
20th-Century U.S. Diplomacy
Spring

A study of the foreign policies and relations of the U.S. with respect to the nations of the Americas, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa, with an emphasis on the American presidents and their secretaries of state during the 20th century. One unit.

History
210
Early American Lives
Every third year, fall

This course will explore the history of Early America through biography. We will look at the lives of a range of individuals from Columbus to Betsy Ross, and from Thomas Jefferson to Sacagawea, as we cover themes such as exploration, colonization, Native American responses, the rise of race slavery, the American Revolution, the formation of American democratic thought, and Euro-American expansion. The course will focus on social developments, conflicting political and economic visions, and tensions between ideals and realities. We will begin in the pre-Columbian era and end in the early national period with the expedition of Lewis and Clark into the American West. One unit.

History
223
Radicalism in America
Annually

Americans recognize that we live in a profoundly different nation than that which was created out of the American Revolution. We might account for these changes in various ways — the genius of the Founding Fathers, the general prosperity of the nation, even the feeling that “things” just always get better over time. This course is based on the idea that these changes have been the result of human effort, and that the efforts of American radicals have been essential to the rise of the American democracy. It examines the thought and action of radicals of various stripe and means, from Tom Paine to Martin Luther King, from the brutal war on American slavery attempted by Nat Turner and John Brown, to the more genteel fight against patriarchy waged by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, and it looks closely at the various efforts of Wobblies, Syndicalists, and Reds to advance the cause of industrial democracy. One unit.

History
224
Catholicism in the United States
Annually

A historical examination of the development of the Catholic Church and its people in the U.S. Particular attention is devoted to issues of church and society as they have developed since the 19th century. One unit.

History
225
The Civil Rights Movement
Annually

Provides an in-depth study of the civil rights movement from its origins in Jim Crow America to its stirrings in the 1950s, through to the heights of its successes in the mid-1960s and its dissolution thereafter. Assesses its legacy and consequences in the 1970s and afterward. Special attention is paid to the way in which the movement worked within, and challenged, consensus notions about progress and “the Negro’s place” in America, and also to the movement as an ideological problem for Americans and activists like Martin Luther King, Malcolm X and others. Also examines the ways in which historians work and make arguments, and students are asked to critically examine both primary and secondary documents. One unit.

History
226
Irish American Experience
Annually

Examines the historical experience of the Irish, one of the largest ethnic groups in America. The Irish in America have left an indelible mark on the nation’s economy, politics, and culture, while at the same time they have been shaped by their adoptive country. Among the topics addressed: colonial era immigration, the Famine, changes in ethnic identity, class conflict and the labor movement, the Catholic Church, machine politics and political affiliations, culture and the arts, nationalism and the fight for Irish freedom, upward mobility and the quest for respectability, relations with other ethnic and racial groups. One unit.

History
230
Environmental History
Fall

Beginning with the early civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Americas, China, and the Mediterranean, this course integrates human experience with the natural order. Examines changing relations of humans to the land and of humans to other species and the impact of the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the hemispheres after 1492. Considers how perceptions of nature have differed over time. Case studies of environmental crises in the contemporary world are based on their 19th- and 20th-century roots. One unit.

History
231
Medieval England to 1216
Alternate years, fall

Examines the political, social, legal and economic developments in England and the Celtic fringe from the prehistoric period, through the Roman and Anglo-Saxon invasions, into the Norman and Angevin eras, ending in 1216 with Magna Carta and the death of King John. Topics include the Romanization of Britain, the growth of Christianity, the roles of medieval women and minority groups, crime and violence. One unit.

History
232
Medieval Lives
Every third year, fall

Examines the political, social and economic developments in England and the Celtic Fringe fro 1216 through the accession of Henry VII in 1485. The course covers the growth of English common law and Parliament; agriculture and society, particularly during the years of demographic expansion in the 13th century and contraction after the Black Death; disturbances of the Hundred Years' War, the Wars of Roses, and the role of crime and violence. The course focuses not just on chronological development of British culture, but also upon the historiography in the field. Thus, we will pay attention to how historians — both medieval and modern — have written about and analyzed these topics. Students are required to develop sensitivity to historical interpretations and to the identification of methods and approaches within the field of medieval history. One unit.

History
233
War and Chivalry in Medieval France
Every third year, spring

Examines the political, social, and cultural developments in France from Roman Gaul to the reign of Louis XI. Emphasizes the institutional development of the state, the vital role of Christianity in the religious, political and intellectual life of France, the evolution of social life and social classes, and the rich artistic and architectural heritage of this era in French history. One unit.

History
234
Medieval Spain
Alternate years, spring

The historical evolution of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula from their Roman experience to the creation of Spain as a political entity at the end of the 15th century. Emphasis is placed on political, social, economic, religious and artistic development, and the influence of the Visigothic and Muslim invasions and the Reconquest on the shaping of Luso-Hispania. One unit.

History
236
Renaissance Europe
Every third year, fall

Surveys the significant intellectual, cultural, social, and political developments across Europe, beginning with the social and economic structures of family life during the early Italian Renaissance, continuing with the political and artistic expressions of the Italian city-states, and tracing the spread of Renaissance influences to northern Europe through the early 16th century. One unit.

History
237
The Reformation
Alternate years

The most significant political, intellectual, and religious developments of the Protestant and Catholic Reformation movements in l6th- and 17th-century Europe. One unit.

History
238
The Papacy in the Modern World
Alternate years

Examines the evolution of the papacy from the Renaissance to the present, and considers the various roles played by the popes, not only in church government, but also in the arts, in politics and diplomacy, and in international advocacy of peace and justice. One unit.

History
239
Louis XIV’s France, Ca. 1560-1715
Alternate years

Studies the politics, religion, society, and culture of early modern France from the Wars of Religion to the end of the reign of Louis XIV. Considers how and why France was the ‘superpower’ of the seventeenth century. One unit.

History
241
French Revolutions
Spring

The French Revolution of 1789 gave birth to the modern nation and to the concept of human rights, but the establishment of a stable republican form of government took almost a century to accomplish. Throughout that century, French intellectuals and statesmen, artists and scientists made Paris “the capital of Europe,” a center of artistic modernism in the visual arts and music, the heart of gastronomy, a center of scientific innovation and medical training, and a magnet for artists, writers, and political dissidents from across Europe and America. During three wars with Germany between 1870 and 1945, the French suffered the devastating effects of war on their own territory. In the postwar era, France took a key role in the creation of the euro zone and helped create postwar prosperity within the New Europe. One unit.

History
242
British Society and Empire, 1763-1901
Alternate years

By the end of the Seven Years War (1756-1763), Britain had emerged as a genuine world power, with holdings larger and richer than any other in the Western world. During the next 150 years, Britain would eclipse its European rivals in industry, trade, and sea power. At the height of its power in the late 19th century, Britain controlled one quarter of the world’s population and one-fifth of its land surface. This course surveys the history of Britain and its empire from the late 18th century to the turn of the 20th century. This course rethinks
certain familiar topics in British history by considering the intersections between home and empire and by highlighting how imperial considerations influenced Britain’s social formation. Topics include the slave trade and slavery, rise of capitalism, industrialization and consumer culture, political reform movements (e.g., antislavery, Chartism, and Irish Home Rule), imperialism, religion, and British identity. One unit.

History
243
20th-Century British Society and Empire
Alternate years

By the turn of the century, at the height of its power, Britain controlled one quarter of the world’s population and one-fifth of its land surface. Over the next 60 years, Britain would lose its status as a world and imperial power. This course focuses on the ways in which imperialism was constitutive of much of the domestic history of Britain from 1901 to 2001, even after Britain lost most of its colonies. It examines Britain’s declining role as a world and imperial power and interrogates the meaning of Britain’s national and imperial identities. It discusses the two World Wars with analysis of their economic, social, cultural, and ideological repercussions within Britain and its empire. One unit.

History
245
Imperial Russia: Between East and West
Spring

At its height, the empire of tsarist Russia stretched across one-sixth of the globe, running from Germany to the Pacific Ocean and bordering regions as disparate as Sweden, China, and Iran. Ever preoccupied with their country's amorphous position between Europe and Asia, Russians have struggled for centuries to define how their vast homeland should modernize and what models of development it should follow. This course examines debates about Russian identity and the relationship of Imperial Russia to "East" and "West" that raged from the time of Peter the Great in 1682 to the outbreak of World War One in 1914. Important issues over the course of the semester include serfdom and emancipation; terrorism and the ethics of resistance against authoritarian power; conflicts over the relative merits of capitalism, liberalism, and socialism; strategies for managing a multi-ethnic empire; and theories of revolutionary vs. evolutionary change. Readings draw on works of Russian literature as well as a variety of other political and cultural sources. One unit.

History
251
Colonial Ireland and India
Alternate years

As British colonies gained their independence in the 20th century, Ireland and India offer interesting points of comparison for studying the nature of British colonialism. Such a comparison offers opportunities to understand distinctions and nuances within colonialism such as the complex interactions of peoples in inherently unequal power relationships; the difficulties of administering a vast multi-national empire in an age of nationalist ferment; and the often stark clash between pre-independence nationalist expectations and post-colonial realities. This course examines their places in the Empire through three lenses: an imperial lens that considers how Britain achieved dominance and maintained rule; a subaltern lens that focuses on indigenous peoples whose “pre (British)-imperial” histories and experiences of empire varied enormously and would continue to shape their relationships in the present; and a lens that probes the complicated interactions between colonizer and colonized, exploring Ireland’s unique position within the Empire, as both a colonized territory and an imperial participant. One unit.

History
253
The Soviet Experiment
Annually

This course traces the cataclysmic history of the USSR from its unpredictable beginnings amid the chaos of the First World War to its consolidation as a giant, unified Communist power. It explores the project of socialist revolution and the violent efforts of leaders  such as Vladimir Lenin and Josef Stalin to transform an agrarian Russian Imperial  Empire into an industrialized Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, abolish private property, and create an egalitarian, atheist, non-capitalist state. We look at the hopes and fears the Revolution inspired, the mechanisms of power in Soviet dictatorship, the practice of repression, and the struggles of everyday life. We pay particular attention to the Soviet experience of the monumental Second World War against Nazi Germany and to the war's aftermath, including the seemingly insurmountable challenges of post-1945 political and economic reform. Most of the semester focuses on the early Soviet period, ending with Stalin's death in 1953.One unit.

History
254
The Soviet Union After Stalin
Alternate years

This course examines the Soviet dictatorship from the death of Josef Stalin in 1953 to the sudden, surprise dissolution of the USSR in 1991. While it delves into some of the "high politics" of the era — a narrative shaped by major figures such as Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, and Mikhail Gorbachev — it also explores social and cultural tensions. What led to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991? What did Soviet citizens think about the world in which they lived and the relationship of their world to that of the West? How did the USSR experience the 1960s? Topics include destalinization, the Space Race, Soviet and U.S. competition in the Third World, resistance movements in Eastern Europe, the roles of science, surveillance, and secrecy in Soviet culture, the rise of the black market, problems of bureaucratic corruption and socialist legality, the Chernobyl nuclear meltdown, and the peaceful “revolutions” of 1989. Above all, this class considers why Soviet leaders failed in various post-1953 attempts to reform their country’s political and economic system. What can the fate of the Soviet Union teach us about ideology and dictatorship, and what kind of legacy has the Soviet era has left on Russia today? One unit.

History
255
Europe: Mass Politics and Total War, 1890-1945
Every third year

From the high point of European global power and cultural influence, Europe moved into an era of world war, popular millenarian ideologies, dictatorships, and unprecedented mass murder. This course examines the origins, evolution, and impact of the modern European ideological dictatorships, from the cultural ferment and socioeconomic change that characterized the pre-1914 “belle époque” through the two world wars. Topics include: modern navies and the scramble for African and Pacific colonies; modern art and science; liberalism and its discontents; the origins and nature of World War I; the Russian revolutions; the Versailles peace settlement; the struggling interwar democracies; the economic crises; communism and fascism; the Italian, German, and Soviet dictatorships; the Spanish Civil War; and the origins of World War II. One unit.

History
256
Europe and the Superpowers, 1939-1991
Alternate years

Postwar Europe was shaped in part by four major influences: the clash between Western liberalism and Soviet communism; the withdrawal from overseas empires; the effort to come to terms with the legacy of world war; and the creation of integrative European institutions. Concentrating on Europe, this course examines reciprocal influences between the Europeans and the two peripheral superpowers (USA and USSR) of the Atlantic community. Topics include: World War II and the Holocaust; science and government; the Cold War; the division of Europe; the revival and reinforcement of western European democracy; de-Nazification; Christian Democracy and Social Democracy; the Economic Miracle; European integration; the strains of decolonization; the rise of Khrushchev; the Berlin crises; De Gaulle and his vision; rock ‘n’ roll, youthful protest, and social change in the Sixties; the Prague Spring; Ostpolitik and détente; the oil shocks; Thatcherism; the Cold War refreeze; the Eastern European dissidents; the environmental movement; Gorbachev’s reforms; and the collapse of communism. One unit.

History
261
Germany in the Age of Nationalism
Alternate years

Late to unify, late to industrialize, and late to acquire democratic institutions, Germany had to cope with all three processes at once, with tragic consequences for human rights and international order.  This course analyzes the development of German nation-building from Frederick the Great to Adolf Hitler.  We explore not only the trends that produced Nazism, but also the alternative pathways and the democratic potential in pre-Nazi German history. Topics include religious tension and prejudice (Catholics, Protestants, and Jews), Prusso-Austrian duality, the revolution of 1848, German national liberalism, Bismarck's unification and its legacy, imperial Germany under the Kaisers, German socialism, World War I, the Weimar Republic, and the Nazis. One unit.

History
262
Germany from Dictatorship to Democracy
Alternate years

Formerly the land of Nazi dictatorship, postwar Germany became home to the most stable democracy in Europe. But alongside the West German republic stood a long-lived Communist dictatorship on East German soil. Was the partition of Germany solely a product of the Cold War, or did it have deeper roots in German history? Did the postwar superpowers dominate the Germans, or did the Germans manipulate the superpowers? This course explores German history from Marx to Merkel, including the Nazi period. Topics include the pre-Nazi Weimar Republic, the Nazi dictatorship, postwar partition, West German economic and democratic revival, the Berlin Wall, the post-Nazi young people, East Germany, Communist collapse, and reunification. One unit.

History
267
Modern Italy
Fall

Italy has a long and distinguished history as a culture, but its political unification occurred only in 1861. In this course, we will examine the development of nationalism and the process of Italy’s political unification, the social and cultural life of 19th-century Italy, the deep divisions between the industrial north and the rural south, Italy’s role in two world wars, the rise of Fascism and the resistance to Fascism, the postwar economic miracle, the role of the Mafia in Italian politics, and Italy’s role in the formation of the European Union. One unit.

History
271
Native American History I: The Indians’ New World
Annually

A survey of Native American history from the pre-Columbian era through the 1840s. What was life like in North America 500 years ago? How did Native Americans react and relate to people from diverse cultures? Can we make broad generalizations about their lives, or do particularities like sex, age and geographical location indicate diverse experiences among Native Americans? This course explores such questions and themes such as trade, work, war, disease, gender, and religion in early North America. It examines theories of origin and life in North America before 1492 and ends with “removals” to Indian Territory in the 1830s and 1840s. One unit.

History
272
Native American History II : From the Plains Wars to the Present
Annually

A survey of Native American history from the 19th-century Plains Wars to the present. Because of the complexity, diversity, historical depth, and geographic scope of North American Indian societies, this course seeks to provide a general framework, complemented by several case studies, through an approach that is both chronological and thematic. Among the topics addressed are the development and implementation of U.S. federal policies toward Indian peoples; Indian resistance and activism; definitions and practices of sovereignty; and cultural attitudes toward Indians in American society. Considers Native Americans not as victims, but as historical, political, economic, and cultural actors who resourcefully adjusted, resisted, and accommodated to the changing realities of life in North America and continue to do so in the 21st century. One unit.

History
275
U.S. Mexican Border
Alternate years

This course examines the history and culture of the region encompassing the modern American southwest and Mexican north from Spanish imperialism to modern immigration debates. Particular attention is paid to the interaction of Native, Latin, and Anglo-American societies in creating a unique “borderlands” society through the present day. This history offers important insight into processes of religious conflict, political revolution, economic dependency and globalization through Latin American and U.S. history. One unit.

History
277
Afro-Latin America
Alternate years

This course examines the African Diaspora in Latin America from the aftermath of slavery to the present. We will study the struggles of Afro-Latin America in establishing citizenship and a dignified existence, emphasizing topics such as: liberation movements; gender and racial politics; art; African religions in the Americas; national policies of “whitening”; and Afro-centric ideologies of the Caribbean. The course extensively uses music as both art and historical text. One unit.

History
278
Raza e Identidad
Every third year, spring

Este curso examina los orígenes y el desarrollo de las identidades raciales y nacionales en el Caribe, enfocando en el caso de la República Dominicana, pero partiendo desde un marco trasnacional e histórico. Estudiaremos muchos de los fenómenos socio-históricos que han formado el país: el colonialismo español, la revolución haitiana, el imperio azucarero estadounidense, y la Alianza para el Progreso entre otros. También, prestaremos atención a las migraciones entre países caribeños y cómo influencian las identidades raciales y nacionales. One unit.

History
281
Imperial China
Alternate years

Surveys Chinese political history from the formative era of the imperial system in the fourth century B.C. through the Communist revolution in 1949. Themes demonstrate how the tradition has shaped and is reconstructed to suit contemporary forces in China. Films, biographies, historical and philosophical writings, and western interpretations of events and personalities offer a variety of perspectives. One unit.

History
282
Modern China
Alternate years

Introduction to events, personalities, and concepts of particular significance for understanding China’s development from a traditional empire considered so weak that it was called the “sick man of Asia” to a modern state that will continue to play a major role in a global world. Covers the period from the Opium Wars in the mid-nineteenth century through the post-Maoist reforms using a variety of sources, including documents, film, literature, reportage and memoirs. Topics covered include ongoing debates within China itself about the often competing demands of modernization, nationalism, traditionalism, feminism, social justice, economic imperatives, rule of law, and human rights. One unit.

History
283
Ethnic Conflict in 20th C Asia
Alternate years

Language, religion, ancestral homeland—what determines an ethnicity? How have people defined themselves and their communities through their culture, history, and their difference from others? What is at stake when ethnicity becomes a political and social concern? We will address such questions in this course as we explore the history of the construction, contestation, and transformation of ethnicity across 20th- and 21st-century Asia. Our goal will be to better understand the emergence of ethnic conflicts—such as those between Hindu and Muslim communities in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh; the Sinhalese and Tamils on the island of Sri Lanka; the Rohingya and the Burmese of Myanmar; and the Malay and Thai peoples of southern Thailand. Students will also have the opportunity to investigate an additional conflict that interests them. Through critically interrogating the history of these conflicts we may begin to identify potential resolutions to current and future ethnic problems in our own communities and those of the larger world in which we live. One unit.

 

History
284
Vietnam, Nationalism and War
Alternate years

Examines Vietnam in terms of its own unique history and culture through a wide range of materials produced by Vietnamese writers, historians and film makers. This course considers the longer history of Vietnamese nationalism as well as the Vietnam-American War. We will consider that war with an eye to understanding all sides involved and with a critical approach to information. We will explore different perspectives of a conflict that continues to trouble both sides by using new materials from Vietnamese and American participants. Films, memoirs and creative literature will offer students a sense of the tenor of life in post-war Vietnam. One unit.

History
285
Warrior Tradition in Japan
Alternate years, spring

One of the most popular and durable of Japanese icons is the samurai warrior. Like all traditions, that of the Japanese warrior has evolved over time through a combination of fact and fiction, reality and myth. That is, the warrior class and the tradition surrounding it each has its own history, and while the two histories often overlap, they are not identical. This course will examine both of these histories: the origins, rise and fall of the warrior class itself between the ninth century and the 1870s; and the evolution of the warrior tradition, which arguably began even earlier and persists today. Each of these histories has, in its own way, contributed to the larger political, social, economic and cultural history of Japan. One unit.

History
286
Modern Japan
Alternate years

This course begins by surveying political, social, economic and cultural developments during the so-called “early modern” period of Japanese history (1600-1850), when the country was governed by the samurai military class. The focus then shifts to the period between the 1850 and 1930, when Japan undertook a thoroughgoing “modern” revolution that transformed it into a major military, industrial and colonial power that rivaled Europe and the United States. While modernization resolved some of the challenges facing
the country in the 19th-century, it also posed a new set of challenges for Japanese — that culminated in the Pacific War. One unit.

History
288
Japan Since the Pacific War
Alternate years

Examines the political, economic, social intellectual and cultural history of Japan since 1945. Some comparisons are made with the prewar period, in order to place these developments within a broader historical context. Topics include: individual, community and state; religion, education and socialization; gender relations; industrial development and its consequences; Japan and the global community; and postwar interpretations of Japanese history. One unit.

History
289
Africa and the World
Every third year

Juxtapose the history of African migrations from the past and the present. How do we compare the story of enslaved Africans shipped to the Americas, Europe, and Asia centuries ago and the images of African immigrants braving dangerous ocean waters to land on the shores of southern Europe today? Are their different ways to think about African connections to a wider world? What changes when we consider the particular experiences of women, children, and men as these mobile actors who have reshaped the modern world?  This course examines forced and free African migrations, mainly from the 15th century to the present. We begin with frameworks that define these movements as an African diaspora. Next, we focus on the complex multi-directional forces in Africa, Europe, the Americas, and Asia that have shaped these historical processes. Topics include slave trades, the Age of Revolutions, abolition, imperial expansion, religious exchange, decolonization, immigration, and tourism. African women and men have not only traveled the globe as the enslaved but they have also plied the seas as sailors, missionaries, entertainers, students, and activists. Africans and their descendants have also written books, testified in court documents, and produced poetry and film about their experiences, memories, and challenges. In the end, African histories are often global stories that can change how we think about the past and present around the world. One unit.

History
290
Gender History in Africa
Alternate years

The common images we have of African women and men paint a confusing picture. Sometimes African women are portrayed as vulnerable, poor, and in desperate need of aid. In other examples, African women are seen as bold and innovative in the face of poverty and neglect. Moreover, both of these scenarios imply that African men are either absent or violent and, generally, at the center of problems ailing African societies. How do we integrate more complex and varied depictions of African women, men, and families into our study of African history? Are gender issues categorically different in Africa? Are Westerners forcing their ideas on African communities? Can Africans and the scholars who study African history help us think differently about the relationships between women, men, and society? Readings include theoretical pieces and case studies on five specific regions/countries of the continent: Nigeria/Benin (West Africa), Morocco (North Africa), South Africa, Kenya (East Africa), and Congo-Kinshasa (Central Africa). We cover key themes in women’s and gender studies such as power relations, feminism, women’s “voices,” and sexuality as well as broader historical issues including religion, health, and politics. Specific topics in African history include state-building, colonialism, nationalism, apartheid, and democratization. Students generally interested in African history or in women's and gender history will find this course useful. One unit.

History
291
Making of the Modern Middle East, 1882-1952
Fall

The making of the modern Middle East began in the late 19th century when the Ottoman Empire, which, since the 16th century, controlled much of the region we today call the ‘Middle East’ (with the exception of Iran), inaugurated a state-guided modernization movement in order to protect its territorial integrity and remain a great power. Despite its best efforts, increasing Ottoman vulnerability vis-a-vis the European powers and the Ottoman decision to side with Germany in the Great War resulted in the Entente powers’ dismantling of the Empire in 1920 following the war. They divided it into individual nation states each under French or British imperial control. From that time, the newly created nations of the Middle East (such as Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon) — guided by their imperial overlords and now separated from their Ottoman past — worked to create the basic institutions of the nation state (government, administration, army) and to develop a common sense of national identity and allegiance to these neophyte governments. This course examines the ‘making of the modern Middle East’ from the late-19th to mid-20th centuries — a time of great political, socio-economic, and cultural transformation in the region. We will focus in particular on European imperialism in the Middle East, the rise of local nationalisms (such as Arab, Turkish, Jewish), the politics of nation-state formation, and the rise of feminist, workers, and student movements. One unit.

History
293
Ottoman Empire I, 1300-1600
Fall

In the mid-l6th century, all of Europe feared the power of the “Grand Turk,” whose empire stretched from Baghdad to Budapest and from the Adriatic to the ports of the Red Sea. Its population was made up of Muslims, Christians, Jews, Turks, Greeks, Armenians, Arabs, Kurds, Serbs and Bosnians, to name a few. This course surveys the emergence of this demographically diverse and geographically vast Ottoman state from a small frontier principality into a world empire in its social, political and cultural contexts. One unit.

History
294
Ottoman Empire II , 1500-1922
Spring

Surveys the major themes in the history of the Ottoman Empire between the 17th and 20th centuries in an effort to understand transformations in state and society, which have collectively been termed by historians, “decline.” Topics include transformations in the classical Ottoman land and military systems, forms of protest and rebellion, the formation of provincial magnates, Ottoman incorporation into the world economy, reform and revival, the Eastern Question and the rise of local nationalisms throughout the empire. One unit.

History
296
South Africa and Apartheid
Alternate years

South Africa's past is a painful history of deep racial discrimination, racialized violence, and segregation. But it is also a history of human resilience and the struggle for equality. This resilience is exemplified by the participation of women and men from diverse racial and social backgrounds, who struggled to end the racist policies of apartheid in South Africa. A course such as this one therefore draws students to debate some of the most important philosophies of an engaged Jesuit education, including a deep commitment to the well-being of the human community and the pursuit of a more just society. In dealing with the many controversies that mark South African history, students will develop their abilities to think critically and logically via weekly journal responses to course readings. One unit.

History
299
Topics in History
Annually

Explores various subjects in the historical discipline, emphasizing reading, discussion, and writing on a topic selected by the instructor. Course format and subjects vary from year to year. One unit.

History
305
America’s First Global Age
Annually

There is great talk about “globalization” and “global economies” during the late 20th and early 21st centuries. However, people living in America were touched by global economic processes as early as the time of Columbus. This course explores North America’s first global age beginning in the 1400s and extending through the 1860s. It examines this history thematically by focusing on various kinds of trades and industries such as gold, fish, timber, tobacco, silver, sugar, alcohol, fur, coffee, tea, and cotton. In addition to economic processes, the course addresses the social, cultural, and political implications of these global trade connections for Americans of African, European, and Native descent. One unit.

History
314
Music, Sport, and Cultural Encounter
Alternate years

From aristocratic flute recitals to playoff games and rock festivals, human cultural expression takes place in social and political settings. Audiences are an intrinsic part of culture: Jackie Robinson integrated the stands, not just the playing field; some of George Harrison's fans learned Eastern Zen practice; Soviet teenagers sang "Jesus Christ Superstar." Inherently sensual, music and sports lend themselves viscerally to political, racial, ethnic, economic, and gendered contestation. We will explore case studies in this history: Bach, religion, and enlightened despotism; Robert and Clara Schumann’s struggles with gendered expectations of artistry and family; ballet, The Rite of Spring, bourgeois morals, and the modern audience as spectacle; the Olympics as proving grounds for liberal democracy and totalitarianism; Hispanics and racial categorization in North American baseball; the transatlantic musical invasions (rock/jazz in Europe, the Beatles in America); the Cold War as culture war; Korean hip-hop; and gender in rock and sport. As historic sites of participatory spectatorship and cross-cultural encounter, what can music halls and sports arenas teach us? One unit.

History
317
Pain and Suffering: US History
Every third year

This is a course in American religious and social thought from the late-18th century to the present. Through reading, discussion, and written assignments, students will explore the development of competing assumptions — rooted in various religious, political, and moral traditions — about the meaning of suffering in society in terms of causes, consequences, and obligations it creates within in the larger community. It begins with the development of humanitarianism in the context of American antislavery debates. It continues through the late-19th and early-20th centuries when the emergence of total war, systemic poverty, industrialization, and public health crises provoked widespread moral concern and political response through new media technologies that brought images of suffering to wider audiences. In studying the post-WWII era, the course revisits ongoing debates over the causes and consequences of poverty in an age of affluence, explores the role of suffering in nonviolent direct action movements of the civil rights and Vietnam era, and examines the sources of modern discourses on just war, humanitarian interventionism, torture, and human rights in the present. Students will have options to explore one or more of these themes in-depth through research projects. One unit.

 

History
320
Crafted by War: Late Medieval England
Alternate years, spring

Examines the political, legal, social, and economic development in England and the Celtic fringe from 1216 and the reign of Henry III to the death of Richard III in 1485. Covers the growth of English common law and Parliament, especially during the reign of Edward 1272-1307; agriculture and society, particularly during the years of demographic expansion in the 13th century and contraction after the Black Death; disturbances of the Hundred Years’ War, the Wars of the Roses, and the role of crime and violence in medieval society. One unit.

History
322
War and Cinema
Every third year, fall

Examines the depiction of war in American and British cinema, contrasting filmed versions to historical events, ranging from Medieval Europe to the jungles of Vietnam. Reading includes analysis of both the historical events and the background to the filmed versions. Emphasis is given to the nature of film as a primary source reflecting the perspectives of the society generating it. One unit.

History
324
Italy and France: War and Resistance
Alternate years, spring

This course focuses on the nature of fascism and resistance to fascism in Italy and France in the 1930s and 1940s. Students should have some background in European history in the 20th century and be interested in the period of the Second World War and the Holocaust. Students who are not history majors but who have taken Italian or French language are encouraged to apply. Among the memoirs and works of fiction to be read will be some of the following: Carlo Levi, “Christ Stopped at Eboli;” Ignazio Silone, “Bread and Wine;” Iris Origo, “War in Val D’Orcia;” Claire Chevrillon, “Code Name: Christiane Clouet;” Marguerite Duras, “The War: A Memoir;” and Primo Levi, “Survival in Auschwitz.” One unit.

History
325
Women and Gender in War, Holocaust, Resistance
Alternate years, spring

Specific ideas about gender and sexuality were an important factor in the nature of fascism and National Socialism. These ideas and their implications will be explored, along with the impact of nationalism, imperialism and two world wars on European women and European culture and family life. Assigned texts will include memoirs and diaries of both men and women from the period of World War II, the Holocaust, and resistance movements. One unit.

History
327
Cultures of the Cold War
Alternate years

The superpower struggle that shaped the world post-1945 involved a competition not only for military might, but also for moral supremacy. During this time, the United States and the Soviet Union came to define themselves in opposition to each other, both seeking to demonstrate the superiority of their respective social and political systems and advertise the alleged degeneracy of those of their arch-rivals. This course looks at how each country portrayed its own society and imagined that of its major global foe, and the way these representations often differed from reality. Because the major emphasis is on the shaping and re-shaping of values and identities, it draws heavily on cultural sources such as novels, short stories, films, cartoons, and music lyrics, as well as other more traditional primary and secondary historical texts. One unit.

History
329
Collapse of Communism
Alternate years

This course studies the Soviet dictatorship from the death of Josef Stalin in 1953 to the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. While it discusses some of the “high politics” of the era — a narrative shaped by colorful figures such as Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, and Mikhail Gorbachev — the course concentrates on social and cultural issues. What did family life look like in the Soviet Union? Can we speak of a Soviet “generation gap”? How did the USSR experience the 1960s? What did Soviet citizens think about their society and what, if anything, did they believe needed to be changed? Above all, it analyzes why the country failed in various post-1953 attempts to reform its political and economic system, what the fate of the Soviet Union teaches us about ideology and dictatorship, and what kind of legacy the Soviet era has left for Russia today. One unit.

History
340
Gilded Age America
Alternate years

This course examines the Gilded Age (1870-1900), a period when America experienced astonishing growth in prosperity, population, industry, urbanization, and westward expansion. Many Americans, as the name Gilded Age suggests, considered this period a golden age of progress. Yet many others perceived these trends as only superficial — just as a gilded piece of jewelry has only a thin layer of gold on its surface. Beneath the wealth and excitement that marked the rise of modern America, critics argued, lay the harsh realities
of urban squalor, political corruption, worker and farmer exploitation, Robber Baron ruthlessness, as well as an alarming growth in the gap between rich and poor. As a result, the Gilded Age was one of the most contentious eras in American history, marked by record numbers of strikes and several insurgent political movements. But out of this turmoil eventually emerged the reform ideas that eventually formed the basis of the succeeding Progressive Era (1900-1920). Some of the many topics considered include westward expansion, Reconstruction, immigration and nativism, industrialization, the labor movement, imperialism, and the changing roles of women. One unit.

History
342
Americans in Paris
Alternate years

Ever since Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin went to Paris during the American and French Revolutions, Americans have been fascinated with France and its capital city. Wealthy Americans took the Grand Tour to immerse themselves in the high culture of Europe, and Paris became known as “the capital of the 19th century,” a mecca for artists and expatriates seeking an intellectual and artistic climate their own societies lacked. Paris was the center of modernity in the arts, literature, music, and progressive social ideas. From 1914 to 1945, the political fortunes of the United States and France became linked as Americans went to France as soldiers; and thousands of U.S. soldiers from the First and Second World Wars remain buried on French soil. From Mark Twain to James Baldwin to American college students studying abroad, Americans have continued to find inspiration in the “city of light.”  One unit.

History
345
Ottoman Lands in the Age of Reform
Spring

In the mid-16th century, all of Europe feared the power of the “Grand Turk,” whose empire stretched from Baghdad to Budapest and from the Adriatic to the ports of the Red Sea and whose population was made up of Muslims, Christians, Jews, Turks, Greeks, Armenians, Arabs, Kurds, Serbs and Bosnians, to name only a few. However, by the 19th century, the tides had changed as the Ottoman Empire faced new challenges associated with the rise of European economic and political supremacy and manifested in the rise of the nation-state and the expansion of capitalist relations of production. Territorial losses to Russia in 1774 set in motion the first decisive effort to examine and reconsider Ottoman notions of state and society, which had endured since the early Ottoman period. In Europe, the Ottomans were increasingly viewed as a relic of the past, receiving the designation “the sick man of Europe.” The Ottomans embarked on reform and change designed to meet these challenges, thus setting in motion a drive toward state centralization and modernization, which defined to a large extent the experience of modernity in the Ottoman Empire and the nation-states, that emerged out of its disintegration and dismemberment in the 19th and 20th centuries including Turkey, Arab states such as Egypt, Syria and Iraq, and Greece and the Balkan states. This course examines the major themes in the history of the Ottoman 18th-20th centuries in an effort to understand transformations in state and society, which have collectively been termed by historians, "modernization" or "tanzimat." Specifically, we will consider the rise of new literary movements and local forms of national identity, the role of minorities and women, urban renewal and development and relations between the provinces and the central lands of the Ottoman Empire. One unit.

History
352
Rebels and Radical Thinkers
Fall

This course examines revolutionary movements in Latin America from the early 1900s to the present, focusing on the radical ideas that inspired the rebels. It explores why radical thinkers seemed to find a fertile ground in Latin American political life. The course considers both the words and actions of some of the most salient radicals of the region, e.g., Emiliano Zapata, José Carlos Mariategui, Frantz Fanon, and Che Guevara. It also traces some of these ideas/rebels as depicted in films — produced either in Latin America, the United States or Europe — analyzing their significance in popular culture. One unit.

History
361
Germans, Jews, and Memory
Every third year

Explores the place of Jews in German Life before, during, and after the Nazi period. Commences with an examination of the centuries-old issue of assimilation. Explores the 20th-century "German world" of Einstein and Freud, everyday Jewish life in Nazi Germany, the Holocaust, survivors and their problems, the place of Jews in divided Germany after 1945, the growing Jewish community in contemporary reunified Germany, and the changing relationships among the children and grandchildren of the Holocaust's perpetrators, victims, and bystanders. Special attention is given to memory issues in postwar Germany. These issues too have a history. How have Germans dealt with their past? How has the passing of generations affected this issue? Are Jews and non-Jews in today's Germany comfortable with each other? One unit.

History
365
Nationalism in Modern Africa
Alternate years, spring

A critical study of anti-colonial nationalist struggles and their outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. The course traces the political economy of colonialism; the origins, rise and dynamics of anti-colonial nationalism; the strategy of armed insurrection and the role of revolutionary socialism. Lastly, it grapples with aspects of post-colonial Africa that reveal the changing balance between internal and external forces in specific African nations, the ambiguities of African “independence,” and post-colonial debates on nation and nationalism. One unit.

History
392
Palestinian-Israeli Conflict
Every third year

The history of the Arab-Israeli conflict is often defined in terms of competing Palestinian and Israeli national ambitions in the land of Palestine. Yet this was not always the case. In the early years of Israel's existence, Israeli prime minister, Golda Meir allegedly declared that Palestine was "a land without a people for a people without a land" thus drawing on a highly polemical  argument originally coined in the mid-19th century to describe the relationship between the Jewish diaspora and the Holy Land. It implied, on the one hand, that the Palestinian people did not exist in the land of Palestine and on the other, that the Jewish people had a special/ primordial right to this land. This course takes this expression as a starting point for considering the history  and historiography of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict from the British Mandate period through the 1967 Six Day War and its aftermath. Through intensive reading and discussion about the rise of Zionism and Palestinian nationalism, the demise of the Ottoman empire, the advent of the British Mandate for Palestine, and the broader conflict between the Arab states and Israel, this course will consider the historiographical revisions that Israeli and Palestinian historians have offered in order to address the "land without a people for a people without a land" polemic. We will investigate the reasons for the emergence of such historical revisionism and more broadly, the implications of newer historical paradigms for the history of the conflict and for its resolution. One unit.

History
399
Advanced Topics in History
Annually

Explores various subjects in the historical sciences, emphasizing reading, discussion, and writing on a topic selected by the instructor. Course format and subjects vary from year to year. One unit.

History
401
History Seminar
Fall, spring

An intensive research-oriented study on various themes. Offered each semester; limited to 12 participants. Permission of the instructor required. One unit.

History
408
Tutorial
Fall, spring

Reading of selected sources, with individual written reports and discussion, under the direction of a member of the department. Permission of the instructor required. One unit.

History
420, 421
Fourth-Year Thesis
Annually

An individual, student-designed, professor-directed, major research project. Usually available only to outstanding fourth-year majors. A lengthy final paper and public presentation are expected. History majors engaged in a thesis may be nominated for Honors in History. One unit each semester.

History
422, 423
Colloquium
Annually

This course is required of all History thesis writers who are working on research-based projects during their senior year. The colloquium has two aims: first, to assist students in developing and adapting the skills they will use in the course of researching, writing, and revising a 60-100 page manuscript and presenting their work orally to a broader audience (an advanced form of The Historian’s Craft); and second, to alleviate, as much as possible, the isolation of the thesis writing process by offering students both formal and informal opportunities for peer support and review. Each 1/2 unit.